observation is that play is an essential cornerstone of healthy social and emo tional development in early childhood and contributes to the skills neces.

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Publishing Information The California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 1) was developed by the Child Development Division, California Depart˛ ment of Education through a contract with WestEd. It was edited by Dixie Abbott, Janet Lundin, and Faye Ong, working in coopera˛tion with Desiree Soto, Consultant, Child Development Division. It was prepared for printing by the staf f of CDE Press: the cover and interior design were created and prepared by Cheryl McDonald; typesetting was done by Jeannette Reyes. It was published by the Department, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901. It was distributed under the provisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096. © 2008 by the California Department of Education All rights reserved ISBN 978-0-8011-1681-0 Ordering Information Copies of this publication are available for sale from the California Department of Education. For prices and ordering information, please visit the Department Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ re/pn or call the CDE Press Sales Of˜ce at (800) 995-4099. An illustrated Educational Resources Catalog describing publications, videos, and other instructional media available from the Depart ˛ ment can be obtained without charge by writing to the CDE Press Sales Of˜ce, California Department of Education, 1430 N Street, Suite 3207, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901; FAX (916) 323-0823 or by calling the CDE Press Sales Of˜ce at the telephone number shown above. Notice The guidance in California Preschool Learning Foundations is not binding on local educational agencies or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)

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Contents˝ A Message from the State Superintendent ˝ of Public Instruction˝ v˝ Acknowledgments˝ vii˝ Introduction˝ xi˝ Foundations in ˜Social-Emotional Development˜ 1 Foundations in ˜Language and Literacy˜ 47 Foundations in ˜English-Language Development˜ 103 Foundations in ˜Mathematics˜ 143 Appendix: The Foundations 173 California Department of Education Ł Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 iii

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A Message from the ˝ State Superintendent of Public ˝Instruction˝ Iam delighted to present the California Preschool Learning Foundations (Volume 1), a publication that I believe will be instrumental in improving early learning and development for California™s preschool children. Young children are naturally eager to learn. However, not all of them are ready for school. All too often, children entering school for the ˜rst time as kindergarten ˛ ers are already lagging behind their class ˛mates, and this disadvantage can affect them socially and academically long past kindergarten. Children who have had the bene˜t of attending high-quality preschools are more comfortable in their surround ˛ings, have been exposed to books, have learned how to play cooperatively, and are accustomed to learning with others. Research shows that all children can bene˜t from participating in high- quality preschool programs. And a r ecent study by the RAND Corporation shows that closing the school fireadinessfl gap will help to close the achievement gap, in which far too many socioeconomically disadvantaged students and far too many African Ameri˛ can and Latino children are lagging behind and achieving below their abilities. Not all preschool programs are equally ef fective, however. Those that strengthen children™s school readiness operate with an in-depth understanding of what children need to learn before they start school. With a goal of ensuring that all preschools in California offer such high- quality programs, the California Depart ˛ment of Education, during a three-year˛ long collaborative effort with leading early childhood educators, researchers, advocates, and parents, developed these preschool learning foundations. The foundations outline key knowledge and skills that most children can achieve when provided with the kinds of inter˛ actions, instruction, and environments research has shown to promote early learning and development. The founda˛ tions can provide early childhood educa˛ tors, parents, and the public with a clear understanding of the wide range of knowl˛ edge and skills that preschool children typically attain when given the bene˜ts of a high-quality preschool program. These foundations focus on four domains: social-emotional development, language and literacy, English-language development, and mathematics. They provide a comprehensive understanding of what children learn in these four domains. It is my hope that these foundations will help guide and support all California preschools as they offer developmentally appropriate activities and instruction that are both purposeful and playful, instilling in our young children a love of learning that will last a lifetime. JONNELLO™CACKState Superintendent of Public Instruction California Department of Education Ł Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 v

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Acknowledgments˝ The development of the preschool learning foundations involved many people. The following groups contrib˛ uted: (1) project leaders; (2) the Preschool Learning Foundations Research Consor˛ tium; (3) expanded research consortia; (4) lead researchers; (5) staff from the California Department of Education (CDE); (6) early childhood education stakeholder organizations; and (7) facilitators of public input sessions. Project Leaders The developmental work involved the tireless work of dedicated staff. The following staff members are gratefully acknowledged for their many contributions: Peter Mangione and Cathy Tsao, WestEd; Mark Wilson and Stephen Moore, Uni˛ versity of California, Berkeley. Preschool Learning Foundations Research Consortium The development of the preschool learning ˝ foundations was guided by a research ˝ consortium composed of the following ˝ members:˝ Melinda Brookshire, WestEd˝ Tzur Karelitz, University of California, ˝ Berkeley Anne Kuschner, Sonoma State University Peter Mangione, WestEd Katie Monahan, WestEd Stephen Moore, University of California, Berkeley Maurine Ballard-Rosa, California State University, Sacramento Kavita Seeratan, University of California, Berkeley Janet Thompson, University of California, Davis Ross Thompson, University of California, Davis Cathy Tsao, WestEd Ineko Tsuchida, WestEd Rebeca Valdivia, WestEd Ann Wakeley, Sonoma State University Ann-Marie Wiese, WestEd Mark Wilson, University of California, Berkeley Hiro Yamada, University of California, Berkeley Marlene Zepeda, California State University, Los Angeles Osnat Zur, WestEd Lead Researchers Special thanks are extended to the follow˛ ing lead researchers for their expertise: Social-Emotional Development Ross Thompson, University of California, Davis Janet Thompson, University of California, Davis Language and Literacy* Anne Cunningham, University of California, Berkeley Christopher Lonigan, Florida State University English-Language Development Marlene Zepeda, California State University, Los Angeles Mathematics Doug Clements, State University of New York Aki Murata, Mills College and Stanford University * Susan Landry and Susan Gunnewig, University of Texas, Houston, also made valuable contributions to early drafts. California Department of Education Ł Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 vii

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ix English-Language Development Barbara Flores, California State Univer˛ sity, San Bernardino Vera Gutierrez-Clellan, San Diego State University Linda Espinosa, University of Missouri, Columbia Celia Genishi, Teachers College, Columbia University Alison Wishard Guerra, University of California, San Diego RaMonda Horton-Ikard, University of Ten˛nessee, Knoxville Gisela Jia, City University of New York Lisa Lopez, University of South Florida Marlene Zepeda, California State University, Los Angeles Mathematics Doug Clements, State University of New York, Stony Brook Janet Barnes, Tehama County Of˜ce of Education Melinda Brookshire, Sonoma State University Larry Champion, Tehama County Of˜ce of Education Don Corrie, Tehama County Of˜ce of Education Jan Davis, Sonoma State University Gary DeiRossi, San Joaquin County Of˜ce of Education Karen Draney, University of California, Berkeley Donna Elmore, SETA Head Start Imelda Foley, Los Angeles Uni˜ed School District Whit Hayslip, Los Angeles Uni˜ed School District Carolyn Huie-Hofstetter, University of California, Berkeley Deirdre Jackson, San Bernardino City Uni˜ed School District Anne Kuschner, Sonoma State University Peter Mangione, WestEd Daniel Meier, San Francisco State University Stephen Moore, University of California, Berkeley Aki Murata, Mills College and Stanford University Deborah Montgomery Parrish, American Institutes for Research Roberta Peck, First 5 California Pat Phipps, California Association for the Education of Young Children Eva Ponte, University of California, Berkeley Lisa Sandberg, Tehama County Of˜ce of Education Ann Shannon, University of California, Berkeley Eun Soo Shin, University of California, Berkeley Amy Wagner, WestEd Mark Whitney, Mira Costa College Mark Wilson, University of California, Berkeley Frank Worrell, University of California, Berkeley Joyce Wright, Sacramento County Of˜ce of Education California Department of Education Thanks are also extended to the following staff members: Gavin Payne, Chief Deputy Superintendent; Anthony Monreal, Deputy Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruction Branch; and Michael Jett, Director, Gwen Stephens, Assistant Director, and Desiree Soto, Consultant, Child Development Division. During the lengthy development process, many CDE staff members were involved at various levels. Additional thanks are extended to Sue Stickel,* Meredith Cathcart, Barbara Metzuk,* Sy Dang Nguyen, Mary Smithberger, Maria Trejo, and Charles Vail. *During the development of the foundations, these individuals worked for the California Department of Education. California Department of Education Ł Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1

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xEarly Childhood Education Stakeholder Organizations Representatives from many statewide organizations provided perspectives affecting various aspects of the learning foundations:Action Alliance for Children Asian Paci˜c Islander Community Action NetworkAssociation of California School AdministratorsCalifornia Alliance Concerned with School-Age Parenting and Pregnancy Prevention California Association for Bilingual Education California Association for the Education of Young Children California Association of Family Child Care California Association of Latino Superintendents and Administrators California Child Care Coordinators AssociationCalifornia Child Care Resource and Referral Network California Child Development Administrators Association California Child Development Corps California Commission on Teacher Credentialing California Community College Early Childhood EducatorsCalifornia Community Colleges Chancellor™s Of˜ceCalifornia County Superintendents Educational Services AssociationCalifornia Early Reading First Network California Federation of Teachers California Head Start Association California Kindergarten Association California National Even Start Association California Preschool Instructional Network California Professors of Early Childhood Special Education California School Boards Association California State Parent-Teacher Association California State University Of˜ce of the ChancellorCalifornia Teachers Association California Tomorrow Californians Together Campaign for High Quality Early Learning Standards in California Child Development Policy Institute Child Development Policy Institute Education FundChildren Now Council for Exceptional Children/The California Division for Early Childhood Council of CSU Campus Childcare Curriculum and Instruction Steering CommitteeFight Crime, Invest in Kids California First 5 Association of California First 5 California Children and Families CommissionInfant Development Association of California Learning Disabilities Association of California Los Angeles Universal Preschool Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund Migrant Education Even Start Migrant Head Start National Black Child Development Institute National Council of La Raza Packard Foundation Children, Families, and Communities Program Preschool California Professional Association for Childhood Education Special Education Local Plan Area Organization University of California Child Care Directors University of California, Of˜ce of the President Voices for African American Students, Inc. Zero to Three Public Input SessionsSpecial thanks should also be extended to Joyce Wright, Nancy Herota, the regional leads of the California Preschool Instruc- tional Network, and to Melinda Brookshire and Jan Davis, WestEd, for their contri- butions in facilitating 53 public input sessions on the draft foundations. Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 Ł California Department of Education

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Introduction˝ Tdhe preschool learning foun˛ ations are a critical step in the California Department of Education™s efforts to strengthen pre˛ school education and school readiness and to close the achievement gap in California. They describe competen˛ ciesŠknowledge and skillsŠthat most children can be expected to exhibit in a high-quality program as they com˛ plete their ˜rst or second year of pre˛ school. In other words, the foundations describe what all young children typi˛ cally learn with appropriate support. The support young children need to attain the competencies varies from child to child. Many children learn simply by participating in high-quality preschool programs. Such programs offer children environments and expe˛ riences that encourage active, playful exploration and experimentation. With play as an integral part of the curricu˛ lum, high-quality programs include purposeful teaching to help children gain knowledge and skills. In addi˛ tion, many children in California™s pre˛ schools bene˜t from speci˜c support in learning English. Other children may have a special need that requires par˛ ticular accommodations and adapta˛ tions. To serve all children, preschool programs must work to provide appro˛ priate conditions for learning and individually assist each child to move along a pathway of healthy learning and development. All 50 states either have developed preschool standards documents or are in the process of doing so. Many of them have sought to align early learn˛ ing standards with their kindergar˛ ten content standards. In most cases these alignment efforts have focused on academic content areas, such as EnglishŒlanguage arts or mathematics. In California priority has been placed on aligning expectations for preschool learning with the state™s kindergar˛ ten academic content standards and complementing the content areas with attention to social-emotional devel˛ opment and English-language devel˛ opment. Like the learning in such domains as language and literacy and mathematics, the concepts in social- emotional development and English- language development also contrib˛ ute signi˜cantly to young children™s readiness for school ( From Neurons to Neighborhoods 2000; Eager to Learn 2000; Early Learning Standards 2002). Because the focus on preschool learn˛ ing in California includes the full range California Department of Education Ł Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 xi

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xii of domains, the term fifoundationsfl is used rather than fistandards.fl This term is intended to convey that learn˛ ing in every domain affects young chil˛ dren™s readiness for school. The preschool learning foundations presented in this document cover the following domains: Ł Social-Emotional Development Ł Language and Literacy Ł English-Language Development (for English learners) Ł Mathematics Together, these domains represent crucial areas of learning and develop˛ment for young children. The founda˛ tions within a particular domain provide a thorough overview of devel˛ opment in that domain. Preschool children can be considered from the perspective of one domain, such as language and literacy or social- emotional development. Yet, when taking an in-depth look at one domain, one needs to keep in mind that, for young children, learning is usually an integrated experience. For example, a young child may be concentrating on mathematical reasoning, but at the same time, there may be linguistic aspects of the experience. The foundations written for each of these domains are based on r esearch and evidence and are enhanced with expert practitioners™ suggestions and examples. Their purpose is to promote understanding of preschool children™s learning and to guide instructional practice. It is anticipated that teach˛ ers, administrators, parents, and poli˛ cymakers will use the foundations as a springboard to augment efforts to enable all young children to acquire the competencies that will prepare them for success in school. Overview of the Foundations The strands for each of the domains discussed previously are listed in this section. Social-Emotional Development Domain. The social-emotional develop˛ ment domain consists of the following three strands: 1. Self, which includes self-aware˛ ness and self-regulation, social and emotional understanding, empathy and caring, and initiative in learning 2. Social Interaction, which focuses on interactions with familiar adults, interactions with peers, group participation, and coopera˛ tion and responsibility 3. Relationships, which addresses attachments to parents, close relationships with teachers and caregivers, and friendships The competencies covered by the social-emotional development founda˛ tions underscore the multiple ways in which young children™s development in this domain in˚uences their ability to adapt successfully to preschool and, later on, in school. Language and Literacy Domain. The language and literacy founda˛ tions address a wide range of speci˜c competencies that preschool children will need support to learn. These foun˛ dations focus on the following three strands: 1. Listening and Speaking, which ˝ includes language use and ˝ conventions, vocabulary, and ˝ grammar˝ 2. Reading, which covers concepts about print, phonological aware˛ ness, alphabetics and word/print Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 Ł California Department of Education

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