Potentially Grave/Mortal/Capital/Deadly Sins from the Catechism of the Catholic Church. (A few related paragraph numbers are specified in parentheses – see

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Potentially Grave/Mortal/Capital/Deadly Sins from the Catechism of the Catholic Church ( A few related paragraph numbers are specified in parentheses see further below for full text ) Paragraph 1857 : For a sin to be mortal, Paragraph 1858 : Grave matter is specified by the Ten Commandments abortion ( 2270 , 2271 , 2272 , 2274 , 2322 ) abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, medicine ( 2290 ) abusive language ( 207 3 ) acedia or sloth ( 1866 , 2094 ) adulation is a grave fault if it makes one an accomplice in another’s vices or grave sins ( 2480 ) adultery ( 1447 , 1756 , 1853 , 1856 , 1858 , 2380 , 2384 , 2400 ) anger ( 2223 , 2262 , 2286 , 2302 ) antichrist, a pseudo – messianism, man glorifies himself in place of God and the Messiah come in t he flesh ( 675 ) armed resistance to oppression by political authority is not legitimate, unless ( 2243 ) avarice ( 1866 , 2534 , 2536 ) bear false witness ( 1853 , 1858 , 2476 ) blasphemy ( 1756 , 1856 , 2148 , 1864 ) blasphem y against the Spirit will not be forgiven ( 1864 ) calumny ( 1753 , 2539 ) contraception not using periodic continence ( 2370 ) coveting the goods of another ( 2534 ) crucify him still, when you delight in your vices and sins ( 598 ) defraud ( 1858 ) deliberate hatred of neighbor ( 2303 ) detraction ( 2539 ) disobedience toward God and lack of trust in his goodness ( 397 ) disobey God ( 394 ) divorce ( 2384 , 2385 , 2386 , 2400 , 2415 ) donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus – are gravely immoral ( 2376 ) drug use , clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs ( 2211 , 2291 ) eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner or without discerning the body ( 1385 ) endanger safety on the road, at sea, or in the air ( 2290 ) enslavement of human beings ( 2414 ) envy ( 1866 , 2538 , 2539 , 2553 ) envy is sadness at the sight of another’s goods and the immoderate desire to hav e them for oneself ( 2553 ) euthanasia ( 2277 , 2324 ) evil thoughts ( 1853 ) excessive gambling, unfair wagers and cheating at games ( 2413 ) extermination of a people, nation, or ethnic minority ( 2313 ) fail as a confessor by betraying, in any way, a penitent ( 2490 ) fail to acknowledge the true nature of marriage and the family ( 2210 ) fail to attend Mass on Sundays and on holy days of obligation and rest from servile labor ( 2042 ) fail to confess your sins at least once a year ( 2042 ) fail to defend, care for, and heal an embryo in its integrity ( 2275 ) fail to educate and give good example to their children ( 2223 ) fail to enact laws that provide penal sanctions for every deliberate violation of born & unborn child’s right s ( 2273 ) fail to grasp that the Church will follow her Lord in his death and Resurrection, not by a historic triumph of the Church through a progressive ascendancy ( 677 ) fail to have respect for the integrity of creation ( 2415 ) fail to help to provide for the needs of the Church ( 2043 ) fail to honor the family or to assist it ( 2211 ) fail to honor your father and your mother ( 1858 ) fail to keep responsibilities toward their parents ( 2218 ) fail to love, anyone who hates his brother is a murderer ( 1033 )

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fail to meet the serious needs of the poor ( 1033 ) fail to observe the days of fasting and abstinence established by the Church ( 2043 ) fail to provide legitimate defense which is a grave duty ( 2265 ) fail to receive the sacrament of the E ucharist at least during the Easter season ( 2042 ) fail to respect and protect human life absolutely from the moment of conception ( 2270 ) fail with submission to God – subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms ( 396 ) failure of a priest who hears confessions to keep absolute secrecy ( 1467 ) failure of civil authorities to prevent the production and distribution of pornographic materials ( 2354 ) false witness ( 1853 , 1858 , 2476 ) falsify the truth, exercise political control of opinion through the media ( 2499 ) feigned ignorance and hardness of heart increase the voluntary character of a sin ( 1859 ) formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense ( 2272 ) fornication ( 1853 , 2 353 , 2396 , 2534 ) fratricide ( 2268 ) free union/concubinage/rejection of marriage/inability to make long – term commitments ( 2390 , 2400 ) gluttony ( 1866 ) gravest slavery is sin which causes all forms of human bondage ( 549 ) greed ( 2536 ) hatred ( 2094 , 2148 , 2262 , 2297 , 2302 , 2303 , 2539 ) heterologous artificial insemination and fertilization ( 2376 ) homicide ( 1856 , 2269 ) homosexual practices ( 2396 ) homosexuality – sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex ( 2357 ) hostage taking ( 2297 ) idolatry ( 1447 , 2380 , 2534 ) incest ( 2356 , 2388 ) indifference, ingratitude, lukewarmness, spiritual sloth, hatred of God comes from pride ( 2094 ) indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants ( 2314 ) infanticide ( 2268 , 2271 ) it is immoral to produce human embryos intended for exploitation as disposable biological material ( 2275 ) kidnapping ( 2297 ) kill ( 1858 , 2262 , 2268 , 2269 , 2271 , 2302 ) lust ( 1866 , 2534 ) lying ( 1753 , 2485 ) magic or sorcery, attempts t o tame occult powers, seeking the intervention of demons ( 2117 ) masturbation ( 2352 , 2396 ) millenarianism, especially “intrinsically perverse” political form of a secular messianism ( 676 ) mortal sin destroys charity ( 1855 ) mortal sin is sin whose object is grave matter, committed with full knowledge and deliberate consent ( 1857 ) murder of a human being especial ly spouse ( 2268 , 2320 ) murderous act of euthanasia ( 2277 ) murderous anger and hatred, desire for revenge ( 2302 ) murderous famines, usurious and avaricious d ealings lead to hunger and death ( 2269 ) parricide ( 2268 ) perjury ( 1756 , 1856 , 2152 , 2163 , 2476 ) polygamy ( 2387 , 2400 ) pornography ( 2211 , 2354 , 2396 ) preferred himself to God, chose himself over and against God ( 398 ) pride ( 1866 , 2094 ) profaning the sacraments, persons, places consecrated to God, especially when committed against the Eucharist ( 1385 , 2120 ) prostitution; engages in it or pays for it ( 2355 ) rape ( 2356 ) refuse to believe and be converted ( 1034 ) refusing or withholding a just wage ( 2408 , 2434 ) sacrilege ( 2118 , 2120 , 2139 ) scandal ( 2269 , 2282 , 2284 , 2285 , 2286 , 2287 , 2291 , 2326 , 2353 , 2355 ) scandal is an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil ( 2284 ) scandal is grave for those obliged to teach and educate others ( 2285 )

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sin committed through malice, by deliberate choice of evil, is the gravest ( 1860 ) sins that cry to heaven: the blood of Abel, sin of the Sodomites, cry of the people oppressed in Egypt, the cry of the foreigner, the widow, and the orphan, injustice to the wage earner ( 1867 ) slander ( 1853 ) slay the innocent ( 2261 ) sloth or acedia ( 1866 , 2094 ) souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell ( 1035 ) steal ( 1858 , 2538 ) suicide ( 2281 , 2282 , 2325 ) suicide done to set an example, especially to the young, is a scandal ( 2282 ) tempting God in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony ( 2139 ) terrorism ( 2297 ) the Ten Commandments are engraved by God in the human heart ( 2072 ) theft ( 1853 , 1858 , 2408 , 2534 ) they are guilty of scandal who establish laws or social structures leading to the decline of morals ( 2286 ) those who do not pray are certainly damned ( 2744 ) torture ( 2148 , 2297 ) unjust aggressor must be rendered unable to cause harm ( 2265 , 2321 ) use of power that can lead others to do wrong ( 2287 ) vainglory ( 1753 ) willful acts to destroy a canonically valid marriage ( 2386 ) wrath ( 1866 )

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Selected Catechism Paragraphs taken from: Catechism of the Catholic Church Libreria Editrice Vaticana United States Conference of C atholic Bishops Kindle Edition Paragraph 1857: For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must Paragraph 1858: Grave matter is specified by the Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments f rom the Catechism t exts : THE FIRST COMMANDMENT I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow THE SECOND COMMANDMENT You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain. You have heard that it was THE THIRD COMMANDMENT Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work. The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath; so the Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath. THE FOURTH COMMANDMEN T Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT You shall not kill. You have heard that it wa judgment. THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT You shall not commit adultery. You have heard heart. THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT You shall not steal. The seventh commandment forbids unjustly taking or keeping the the sake of the common good, it requires respect for the universal and to fraternal charity. THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT You shall n shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn. lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart. THE TENTH COMMANDMENT You shall not covet any s. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

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From t he Catechism: 10 0+ Selected Paragraphs Concerning Grave /Mortal/Capital /Deadly Sin [ N o guarantee that the following list is totally (Footnote numbers and/ or other numberings were removed from the Kindle version utilized 394 troy the works of th In its consequences the gravest of these works was the mendacious seduction that led man to disobey God. 396 God created man in his image and established him in his friendship. A spiritual creature, man can live this friendship only in free insurmountable limit s that man, being a creature, must freely recognize and respect with trust. Man is dependent on his Creator and subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that govern the use of freedom. 397 Man, tempted by the devil, let his trust in his in his goodness. 398 In that sin man preferred himself to G od and by that very act scorned him. He chose himself over and against God, against the requirements of his creaturely status and therefore against his own good. Constituted in a state of holiness, man before God, and not in accordance with God. 549 By freeing some individuals from the earthly evils of hunger, injustice, illness, and death, Jesus performed messianic signs. Neverthel ess he did not come to abolish all evils here below, but to free men from the gravest slavery, sin, which 598 In her Magisterial teaching of the faith and in the witne our sins affect Christ himself, the Church does not hesitate to imp ute to Christians the gravest responsibility for the torments inflicted upon Jesus, a responsibility with which they have all too often burdened the Jews alone: We must regard as guilty all those who continue to relapse into their sins. Since our sins mad e the Lord Christ suffer the torment of the cross, those who plunge themselves into disorders and crimes crucify the Son of God anew in their hearts (for he is in them) and hold him up to contempt. And it can be seen that our crime in this case is greater in us than in the Jews. As for them, according d deeds, we in some way seem to lay violent han ds on him. Nor did demons crucify him; it is you who have crucified him and crucify him still, when you delight in your vices and sins. 675 trial that will shake the faith of many b elievers. deception offering men an apparent solution to their problems at the price of apos tasy from the truth. The supreme religious deception is that of the Antichrist, a pseudo – messianism by which man glorifies himself in place of God and of his Messiah come in the flesh. 676 world every time the claim is made to realize within history that messianic hope which can only be realized beyond history through the eschatalogical judgment. The Church has rejected even modified forms of this falsification of the kingdom to come under the name of millenarianism, especially 677 The Church will enter the glory of the kingdom only through this final Passover, when she will follow her Lord i n his death and Resurrection. The kingdom will be fulfilled, then, not by a historic triumph of the Church through a progressive ide to come down from heaven. r the revolt of evil will take the form of the Last Judgment after the final cosmic upheaval of this passing world. 1033 We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our

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separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren. To die in mortal choice. This state of definitive self – exclusion from c 1034 to believe and be converted, where both soul and body can be lost. Jesus solemn : 1035 The teaching of the Ch urch affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those punishment of hell is eternal separatio n from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. 1385 To respond to this invitation we must prepare ourselves for so great and so holy a moment. St. Paul urges us to examine our conscienc guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For any one who eats and drinks a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion. 1447 Over the centuries the concrete form in which the Church has exercised thi s power received from the Lord has varied considerably. During the first centuries the reconciliation of Christians who had committed particularly grave sins after their Baptism (for example, idolatry, murder, or adultery) was tied to a very rigorous disci pline, according to which (which concerned only certain grave sins), one was only rarely admitted and in certain regions only once in a lifetime. During the seventh century Irish missionaries, inspired by the Eastern monastic tradition, took to continental Europe the reconciliation with the Church. From that time on, the sacrament has been performed in secret between penitent and priest. This new practice envisioned the possibility of repetition and so opened the way to a regular frequenting of this sacrament. It allow ed the forgiveness of grave sins and venial sins to be integrated into one sacramental celebration. In its main lines this is the form of penance that the Church has practiced down to our day. 1467 Given the delicacy and greatness of this ministry and the respect due to persons, the Church declares that every priest who hears confessions is bound under very severe penalties to keep absolute secrecy regarding the sins that his penitents have confessed to him. He can make no use of knowledge that confessi 1753 A good intention (for example, that of hel disordered, such as lying and calumny, good or just. The end does not justify the means. Thus the condemnation of an innocent person cannot be justified as a legitimate means of saving the n ation. On the other hand, an added bad intention (such as vainglory) makes an act evil that, in and of itself, can be good (such as almsgiving). 1756 It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that in spires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. 1853 Sins can be distinguished according to their objects, as can every human act; or according to the virtues they oppose, by excess or defect; or according to the commandments they violate. They can also be classed according to whether they concern Go d, neighbor, or oneself; they can be divided into spiritual and carnal sins, or again as sins in thought, word, deed, or omission. The root of sin is in the heart of man, in his free will, according to the teaching of the Lord: vil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander. These are what defile a But in the heart also resides charity, the source of the good and pure works, which sin wounds. 1855 Mortal sin destroys charity in the heart of m his ultimate end and his beatitude, by preferring an inferior good to him. Venial sin allows charity to subsist, even though it offends and wounds it. 1856 Mortal sin, by attack ing the vital principle within us that is, charity and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation: When the will sets itself upon something that i s of its nature incompatible with the charity that orients man toward his ultimate end,

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2094 indifference neglects or refuses to reflect on divine charity; it fails to consider its prevenient goodness and denies its power. ingratitude fails or refuses to acknowledge divine charity and t o return him love for love. lukewarmness is hesitation or negligence in responding to divine love; it can imply refusal to give oneself over to the prompting of charity. acedia or spiritual sloth goes so far as to refuse the joy that comes from God and to be repelled by divine goodness. hatred of God comes from pride. It is contrary to love of God, whose goodness it denies, and whom it presumes to curse as the one who forbids sins and inflicts punishments. 2117 All practices of magic o and have a supernatural power over others even if this were for the sake of restoring their health are gravely contrary to the virtue of religion. These practices are even more to be condemned when accompanied by the intention of harming someone, or when they have recourse to the intervention of demons. Wearing charms is also reprehensible. Spiritism often implies divination or magical practices; the Church for her part warns the faithful against it. Recourse to so – called traditional 2118 God, in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony. 2119 Tempting God consists in putting his goodness and almighty power to the test by word or deed. Thus Satan tried to induce Jesus to throw himself down from the Temple and, by this gesture, force God to act. Jesus opposed Satan with the the respect and trust we owe our Creator and Lord. It always harbors doubt about his love, his providen ce, and his power. 2120 Sacrilege consists in profaning or treating unworthily the sacraments and other liturgical actions, as well as persons, things, or places consecrated to God. Sacrilege is a grave sin especially when committed against the Euchari st, for in this sacrament the true Body of Christ is made substantially present for us. IN BRIEF 2139 Tempting God in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony are sins of irreligion forbidden by the first commandment. 2148 Blasphemy is directly oppose d to the second commandment. It consists in uttering against God inwardly or outwardly laspheme that honorable name [of Jesus] by which you are educe peoples to servitude, to torture persons contrary to the respect due God and his holy name. It is in itself a grave sin. 2152 A person commits perjury when he makes a promise under oath with no intention of keeping it, or when after promising on oath he does not keep it. Perjury is a grave lack of respect for the Lord of all speech. Pledging oneself by oat h to commit an evil dee d is contrary to the holiness of the divine name. IN BRIEF 2163 False oaths call on God to be witness to a lie. Perjury is a grave offence against the Lord who is always faithful to his promises. 2181 The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and conf irmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor. Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin. 2210 The importance of the family for the life and well being of society entails a particular responsibility for society to support and strengthen marriage and the family. Civil authority should nature of marriage and the family, to protect and foster them, to safeguard public morality, and promote domestic 2211 The political community has a duty to honor the family, to assist it, and to ensure especially: the freedom to the protection of the stability of the marriage bond and the institution of the fam ily; the right to private property, to free enterprise, to obtain work and housing, and the right to emigrate; i medical care, assistance for the aged, and family benefits; the protection of security and health, especially with respect to dangers like drugs, pornography, alcoholism, etc.; the freedom to form associations with other families and so to have representation before civil authority.

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2218 The fourth commandment reminds grown children of their responsibilities toward their parents. As much as they can, they must give them material and mor al support in old age and in times of illness, loneliness, or distress. Jesus recalls this duty of gratitude. For the Lord honored the father above the children, and he confirmed the right of the mother over her sons. Whoever honors his father atones for s ins, and whoever glorifies his mother is like one who lays up treasure. Whoever honors his father will be gladdened by his own children, and when he prays he will be heard. Whoever glorifies his father will have long life, and whoever obeys the Lord will r efresh his mother. O son, help your father in his old age, and do not grieve him as long as he lives; even if he is lacking in understanding, show forbearance; in all your strength do not despise him. Whoever forsakes his father is like a blasphemer, an d whoever angers his mother is cursed by the Lord. 2223 Parents have the first responsibility for the education of their children. They bear witness to this responsibility first by creating a home where tenderness, forgiveness, respect, fidelity, and disinterested service are the rule. The home is well suited for education in the virtues. This requires an apprenticeship in self denial, sound judgment, and self mastery the preconditions of all true freedom. Parents should teach their children to subordi o acknowledge their own failings to their children, parents will be better able to gu ide and correct them: He who loves his son will not spare the rod. He who disciplin es his son will profit by him. Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord. 2243 Armed resistance to oppression by political authority is not legitimate, unless all the following conditions are met: 1) there is certain, grave, and prolonged violation of fundamental rights; 2) all other means of redress have been exhausted; 3) such resistance will not provoke worse disorders; 4) there is well founded hope of success; and 5) it is impossible reasonably to foresee any better solution. 2261 The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. The law forbidding it is universally valid: it obliges each and everyone, always and everywhere. 2262 of anger, hatred, and vengeance. Going further, Christ asks his disciples to turn the other cheek, to love their enemies. He did not defend himself and told Peter to leave his sword in its sheath. 2265 Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for one who is responsible for the lives of others. The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable to cause harm. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility. 2268 The fifth commandment forbids direct and inte ntional killing as gravely sinful. The murderer and those who cooperate voluntarily in murder commit a sin that cries out to heaven for vengeance. Infanticide, fratricide, parricide, and the murder of a spouse are especially grave crimes by reason of the natural bonds which they break. Concern for eugenics or public health cannot justify any murder, even if commanded by public authority. 2269 The moral law prohibits exposing someone to mortal danger without grave reason, as well as refusing assistance to a person in danger. The acceptance by human society of murderous famines, without efforts to remedy them, is a scandalous injustice and a gr ave offense. Those whose usurious and avaricious dealings lead to the hunger and death of their brethren in the human family indirectly commit homicide, which is imputable to them. Unintentional killing is not morally imputable. But one is not exonerated f death, even without the intention to do so. 2270 Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life. Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you. My fra me was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the depths of the earth. 2271 Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. This teaching has not changed and remains unch angeable. Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law: You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish. God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men t he noble mission of safeguarding life, and men must carry it out in a manner worthy of themselves. Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.

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2272 Formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense. The Church attaches the canonical penalty of Church does not thereby intend to restrict the scope of mercy. Rather, she makes clear the gravity of the crime committed, the irreparable harm done to the innocent who is put to death, as well as to the parents and the whole of society. 2273 The inalienable right to life of every innocent human individual is a constitutive element of a civil society and its by civil society and the political authority. These human rights depend neither on single individuals nor on parents; nor do they represent a concession made by society and the state; they belong to human nature and are inherent in the person by virtue of the creative act from a category of human beings of the protection which civil legislation ought to accord them, the state is denying the equality of all before the law. When the state does not place its power at the service of the rights of each citizen, and in particular o f the more vulnerable, the very foundations of a state based on law are undermined. As a consequence of the respect and protection which must be ensured for the unborn child from the moment of conception, the law must provide appropriate penal sanctions f or every deliberate vio 2274 Since it must be treated from conception as a person, the embryo must be defended in its integrity, cared for, and healed, as far as possible, like any other human being. Prenatal diagnosis is of the embryo and the human fetus and is directed toward its safeguarding or healing as an individual. It is gravely opposed to the moral law when this is done with the thought of possibly inducing an abortion, depending upon the results: a diagnosis must not be the eq 2275 embryo and do not involve disprop ortionate risks for it, but are directed toward its healing, the improvement of its condition of health, or its biological material manipulations are cont which are unique and unrepeatable. 2277 Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia consists in putting an end to the lives of handicapped, sick, or dying persons. It is morally unacceptable. Thus an act or omission which, of itself or by intention, causes death in order to eliminate suffering constitutes a murder gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator. The error of judgment into which one can fall in good faith does not change the nature of this murderous act, which must always be forbidden and excluded. 2281 Suicide contradicts the natural inclination of the human being to preserve and perpetuate h is life. It is gravely contrary to the just love of self. It likewise offends love of neighbor because it unjustly breaks the ties of solidarity wit h family, nation, and other human societies to which we continue to have obligations. Suicide is contrary to love for the living God. 2282 If suicide is committed with the intention of setting an example, especially to the young, it also takes on the gravity of scandal. Voluntary co – operation in suicide is contrary to the moral law. Grave psychological dist urbances, anguish, or grave fear of hardship, suffering, or torture can diminish the responsibility of the one committing suicide. 2284 Scandal is an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil. The person who gives scandal becomes his neighbor offense if by deed or omission another is deliberately led into a grave offense. 2285 Scandal takes on a particular gravity by reason o f the authority of those who cause it or the weakness of those who it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened r Scandal is grave when given by those who by nature or office are obliged to teach and educate others. Jesus reproaches clothing. 2286 Scandal can be provoked by laws or institutions, by fashion or opinion. Therefore, they are guilty of scandal who establish conditions that, intentionally or not, make Christian conduct and obedience to the Commandments difficult and practically is also true of business leaders who make rules encouraging fraud, teachers who provoke their children to anger, or manipulators of public opinion who turn it away from moral values.

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2287 Anyone who uses the power at his disposal in such a way that it leads others to do wrong becomes guilty of scandal him by whom they come! 2290 The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid ev ery kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, or road, at sea, or in the air. 2291 The use of drugs inflicts very grave damage on human health and life. Their use, except on strictly therapeutic grounds, is a grave offense. Clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs are scandalous practices. They constitute direct co – operation in evil, since they encourage people to practices gravely contrary to the moral law. 2297 Kidnapping and hostage taking bring on a reign of terror; by means of threats they subject their victims to intolerable pressures. They are morally wrong. Terrorism threatens, wounds, and kills indiscr iminately; it is gravely against justice and charity. Torture which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity. Except when pe rformed for strictly therapeutic medical reasons, directly intended amputations, mutilations, and sterilizations performed on innocent persons are against the moral law. 2302 of heart and denounced murderous reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely against charity; it is a mortal sin. 2303 Deliberat e hatred is contrary to charity. Hatred of the neighbor is a sin when one deliberately wishes him evil. Hatred for those who persecut e you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. 2313 Non – combatants, wounded soldiers, and prisoners must be respected and treated humanely. Actions deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes , as are the orders that command such actions. Blind obedience does not suffice to excuse those who carry them out. Thus the extermination of a people, nation, or ethnic minority must be condemned as a mortal sin. One is morally bound to resist orders that command genocide. 2314 at it provides the opportunity to those who possess modern scientific weapons especially atomic, biological, or chemical weapons to commit such crimes. IN BRIEF 2320 The murder of a human being is gravely contrary to the dignity of the person and the h oliness of the Creator. IN BRIEF 2321 The prohibition of murder does not abrogate the right to render an unjust aggressor unable to inflict harm. Legitimate defense is a grave duty for whoever is responsible for the lives of others or the common good. IN BRIEF 2322 From its conception, the child has the right to life. Direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an end or as a , gravely contrary to the moral law. The Church imposes the canonical penalty of excommunic ation for this crime against human life. IN BRIEF 2324 Intentional euthanasia, whatever its forms or motives, is murder. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator. IN BRIEF 2325 Suicide is seriously contrary to justice, hope, and charity. It is forbidden by the fifth commandment. IN BRIEF 2326 Scandal is a grave offense when by deed or omission it deliberately leads others to sin gravely. 2352 By masturbation is to be understood the deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual e been in no ere sexual pleasure is meaning of mutual self –

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