Shia Muslims and The 5 roots of Usul ad-Din. Al-Qadr •The Qur’an is know as Umm-ul-kitab (Mother of Books) What is Id-ul-Fitr and how is it celebrated? ⇒.

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3 Key concepts Tawhid Muslim belief in the oneness of God The term used of the messengers of God, beginning with Adam and ending with the Prophet Muhammad Halal (permitted) Actions or things which are permitted in Islam, such as eating permitted foods Haram (forbidden) Actions or things which are forbidden in Islam, such as eating forbidden foods Jihad jihad. The greater jihad is the daily struggle and inner spiritual struggle to live as a good Muslim. The lesser jihad is a physical struggle communal place of worship for the Muslim community A way of life; Muslims believe that God has set out a clear path for how Muslims should religious rules that put the principles set out Ummah community of Muslims who share a common religious identity YOU MUST, MUST, MUST LEARN THESE AS THEY WILL BE THE FOCUS OF YOUR a) QUESTIONS FOR THIS UNIT

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4 Overview of Islam and its place in Britain and worldwide Sources of authority is the direct word of God The Sunnah : the way of the Prophet. All of Muhammad’s actions and words to be used as an example for Muslims today The Hadith: the saying of the prophet recorded by friends and family the straight path. This sets of rules and laws that are based on the principles of the The basics! Originates from the Middle East Believe in one God as the divine creator Believe that Prophet Muhammad was the last prophet in a long line of prophets The Qur’an is the direct word of God in a fair and just society on earth 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide Fastest growing religion Middle east and North Africa have the largest Muslim populations, but many live in the Asia Pacific region 3 million Muslims in Britain 4.5% of the population Many came to work after WWII Community is very diverse, with Sunni, Shia communities The Islamic community Ummah The ummah is the worldwide community of muslims. Within the ummah all muslims are equal, whatever their language, culture or nationality. There is a great diversity across the Islamic world. There is no one single pattern for what it means to be Muslim, but there are certain fundamentals they all hold to. The central belief for Muslims is that there is one God (Allah) who has revealed

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5 In Islam approximately 90% are Sunni and 10% are Shia. This number is reflected in the UK population statistics. liefs Islam split following the death of the Prophet Mu- hammad. Some people felt that a blood relative should be the one to carry on the faith while others disagreed and said that it should be someone who is the most knowledgeable. Sunni Shia Abu Bakr was a good friend and com- panion of Muhammad. He became Kha- lifah/next leader after the prophets death. Ali was the cousin and son – in – law of the Prophet Muhammad. He was ap- pointed as the blood – related ancestor of Muhammad. Both believed they were carrying out Muhammads wishes. Religious guidance only comes from the These things provide the basis of Shari- ah law. Follow appointed leaders set out as the descendants of the Prohphet Muham- mad. Do not follow a religious hierarchy they believe that Imams are good teach- ers and leaders. The last Imam will appear at the end of the world.

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6 Islam: beliefs and teachings which states you should have The 6 articles of faith in Sunni Islam are: Malaikah (angels who communicate on behalf of God) Allah (links to tawhid) Akhirah (means life after death in paradise or hell) Risalah (means prophethood and refers to all prophets including Shia Muslims and The 5 roots of Usul ad – Din Al – Qadr (Means fate and predesti- nation) Holy books books revealed to the proph- ets) The foundations of faith Tawhid (oneness of God/Allah) Adalat (the best and only judge) Nubuwwah (prophethood God appoints prophets to teach us) Resurrection (belief in a day of Judgement where all will be raised and judged) Imams (leadership claims Ali as the rightful successor to Muhammad, also belief in the 12 Imams) Identify the similarities and differences between key beliefs and teachings. These will help with explanation, analysis and Identify the similarities between the 6 articles and 5 roots:

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8 Islam: the nature of God continued This is one of the biggest sins that a Muslim can make Shirk means associating other beings or things with God This is why Muslims do not use pictures/images of Muhammad or other figures because people might worship them instead of God The prophets are very important but are only human. Only God should be worshipped Committing the sin of shirk Fitrah: the need for God Taqwa: awareness of God We are all born with an instinctive need for God It draws us to worship God It is where our conscience comes from This is a desire for a personal connection with God Taqwa is the highest quality a Muslim can have and draws them to worship sincerely and often It is sometimes seen as a shield against wrongdoing Revelation: God revealing his truth. Allah does not communicate with us directly with humans, but instead he uses special beings humans and angels. Allah guides Muslims we have a duty to serve Allah, to follow the laws he has given to us. Revelation is the idea that God has made his special truth known to humans. sage was given to the Prophet Muhammad. Hanifs, the devout people.

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9 Islam. The nature of God: Sources of wisdom Qur’an 3:18 Allah witnesses that there is no deity except Him Qur’an 46:33 And the evil consequences of what they did will appear to them, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule. Read and summarise the main meanings. These are important and you need to know the main ideas or be able to quote from it and explain it Summarise it/paraphrase it Summarise it/paraphrase it C) Explain Muslim beliefs about the nature of God (5) Muslims believe that God is the sustainer and creator of the universe and is the only thing that should be worshipped as is shown in Surah 3:18 which means the worshipped, that it is a terrible sin to worship anything else. This is known as the sin of shirk . 99 names . Muslims transcendent and therefore outside of space and time and not subject to natural laws. By thinking about his different characteristics such as they can work out what his will is and live by it Furthermore, they can look to the Qur’an Al – Fatihah it states that sovereign of the Day of which means the Day of Judgement. Muslims can learn from this that God is forgiving but is also going to judge them on the day of judgement and decide their fate Muslims believe that they can have a personal connection with God because we are instinctively drawn to him. This is know as fitrah. Alongside this Muslims should practice developing their taqwa (awareness of God) in order to stay on the straight path that God has set them on

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10 What are the prophets and why are they important? The prophets are how God communicated his message over time to human beings. Each message has been corrupt or lost . perfect and free from error To every people was sent an apostle Father of the human race Seen as a hanif (early believer in one God) One of the most significant prophets Most prominent aside from Muhammad Adam was created as a khalifah (steward) Adam and Eve disobeyed god and were banished from the g arden of Eden Built the first Seen as one of the greatest prophets before Isa (Jesus) Was born a polytheist but rejected it. Had two sons; the Arabs and Ishaq (Isaac, prophet to the Jews). is more important When on the Hajj they remember mother searching for water. Many also believe not Isaac that God instructed him to sacrifice. He threw stones at the devil who tried to stop him carrying They believe that the Scrolls of Ibrahim were revealed but they have been lost over time Islam: Risalah (prophethood) Adam Ibrahim Musa Dawud king Made Jerusalem a holy place for Muslims Received the word of God through the Zabur (Psalms) After Ibrahim was lost and so God sent another prophet Musa led the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and into the Promised Land Musa gave us the Tawrat (Torah) but the people were sinful and words so the message became corrupted Isa Maryam (Mary), his mother) is also very important to Muslims Isa is seen as the successor to Musa (Moses) Isa was given the Injil (gospel) and performed miracles Muslims deny the Trinity as shirk as God is one, not three They affirm the truth of the resurrection. God would not allow evil to triumph over good and so took him to heaven. He will appear when god judges humanity

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11 about Muhammad and who was he? Muhammad: the seal of prophets He is the final prophet and a role model for all Muslims He is the perfect example of an ordinary man Because he is a man and not divine Muslims must be careful not to worship him . Instead they should follow his example The night of power: Laylat – ul – Qadr As Muhammad grew more dissatisfied he spent more and more time in prayer and solitude. One night in 610 CE the Angel Jibril appeared to him and ordered him to recite the words that had appeared before him. It is now one of the holiest days of the year and celebrated on the 27th day of Ramadan. Key information : The revelations happed over 23 years; sometimes through angle Jibril, sometimes through a voice, some whilst he was in prayer and some in his day to day life Main message: There is one God We must show thanks and praise to this God We will be judged on our actions by this God Many did not believe him to begin with but those that did became known as Muslims Muhammad and Madinah Makkah was rich due to pagans paying worshipping the idols there He struggled in Makkah until his wife Khadijah died Muhammad embarked on what is know as the hijrah (migration) from Makkah to a town called Yathrib He was invited by pilgrims impressed by his message. He became known as a spiritual, political and military leader here and the city was renamed Madinah (City of the Prophet ) By 630 CE he was strong enough to march 10,000 men on Makkah and retake it. He managed this without spilling any blood the idols were removed and Islam established Orphaned when young Known as a truthful and intelligent person Married an older widow who was his employer at the time after she proposed to him They married and Muhammad had 6 children; 4 girls and 2 boys . The boys died in childhood He believed that Makkah had become sinful and corrupt and saw that people were worshipping false idols. He believed in one God Differences in Islam For Shia Muslims Ali is very significant because he was the first Iman and is the rightful successor to Muhammad for them For Ahmadiyya Muslims , Muhammad comes first but Ghulam Ahmed is the divinely appointed and promised Madhi that will come on the Day of Judgement

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