Towards a Postmodern Synthesis of Islamic Science and Modern Scholar and Director of Dar Al Mustafa, Tarim, praised Love in the Holy Qur’an as a free downloadable pdf, and received 8 now dubbed the ‘Jerusalem of Lithuania’.

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˜e Muslim ˚˛˛: ˜e World™s ˚˛˛ Most In˝uential Muslims, ˙˛˙˛ ISBN: print: ˆˇ˘-ˆˆ˚ˇ- e-book: ˆˇ˘-ˆˆ˚ˇ–ˆ Jordan National Library Deposit No: ˙˛ˆ/ˆ/˚˛˙ © ˙˛ˆ ˜e Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre ˙˛ Sa™ed Bino Road, Dabuq PO BOX ˆ˚˛ Ammaˆ˚, JORDAN All rights reserved. No part of this book may be repro -duced or utilized in any form or by any means, electron -ic or mechanic, including photocopying or recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, with -out the prior written permission of the publisher. Views expressed in ˛e Muslim ˝˙˙ do not necessarily re˝ect those of RISSC or its advisory board. Set in Garamond Premiere Pro Printed in ˜e Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Calligraphy used throughout the book provided courte -sy of Title page Bismilla by Mothana Al-Obaydi Chief Editor: Prof S Abdallah Schleifer Contributing Guest Editor: Omayma El-Ella Managing Editor: Mr Aab Ahmed Editorial Board: Dr Minwer Al-Meheid, Mr Moustafa Elqabbany, and Ms Zeinab Asfour Researchers: Lamya Al-Khraisha, Moustafa Elqabbany, Zeinab Asfour, Noora Chahine, and M AbdulJaleal Nasreddin Typeset by: M AbdulJaleal Nasreddin MABDA

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iii˜ Contents ˚P˜˚˛ ˝Introduction ˙Persons of the Year – ˜˚˜˚ ˆA Selected Survey ˇ˘˜e House of Islam ˘˙˜e Top 50 ˙ Honourable Mentions ˝˝˘ ˜e 450 Lists ˝˝˙ Scholarly ˝ Political ˝˘˙ Administration of Religious A˛airs ˘ Preachers & Spiritual Guides ˝˙ Philanthropy, Charity & Development ˝˙˘ Social Issues ˘ Business ˆ Science & Technology ˇ Arts & Culture ˝ur™an Reciters ˝ˆ Media ˝ Celebrities & Sports ˝ˆ Top Extremists ˝ˆ ˜e Obituaries ˙ Guest Contributions Towards a Postmodern Synthesis of Islamic Science and Modern Science: ˙e Epistemological Groundwork by Professor Osman Bakar ˇ Alive and Awake: ˙e First and Greatest Novel by Oussama Hamza ˇ Can Ethics be Taught and Learned? by Qamar-ul Huda, PhD ˇ Evolution and IslamŠA Brief Review by Dr Shoaib Malik ˇ˝ˇ ˙e Enduring Ornament of Civilisation by Sheikh Faid Mohammed Said ˇ˝ˆ Integrating the ˝ur™an, the Shari™ah. and Muslims into America during the Era of Artiˆcial Intelligence by Robert D. Crane and Sskas ˇ Accounting for the Rise of Populism by Isobel Ingham-Barrow ˇˇ ˙e Uyghurs and the Fate of China by Dr Azeem Ibrahim

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ivˇ Why I Created Britain™s Muslim Heritage Trails and Why We Need More of ˙em by ˜arik Hussain ˇ Where You From? by Riz Ahmed ˇ˘˝ Book Reviews ˇ Major Events ˇ Appendix IŠPopulation Statistics ˇ Appendix IIŠSocial Media Statistics ˘ Glossary of Islamic Terms ˇ ˜e Indices Index by Name Index by Country ˜at which is with you will come to an end, but that which is with God remains. And He shall surely pay those who were patient, their reward according to the best of what they used to do. Whoever acts righteously, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily We shall revive with a goodly life. And We shall surely pay them their reward according to the best of what they used to do. ˜e Bee, 96 – 97Calligraphy by Jawahir Al-Qur™an ©

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In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful: Praise be to God; Lord of all Worlds. ˜e Compassionate, the Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgement. You alone we worship, and You alone we ask for help. Guide us to the straight path: the path of those whom You have favoured, not the path of those against whom there is wrath, nor of those who are astray. ˜e Opening, 1 – 7 Calligraphy by Hasan Kan™an ©

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3Welcome to the eleventh annual issue of ˛e Muslim 500: ˛e World™s 500 Most Inˆuential Muslims . We are very pleased that we have made it this far and that the book has evolved as it has. We thank you for all your support and suggestions and look forward to continually re -ceiving them. ˜ere are approximately 1.93 billion Muslims in the world today, making up 25% of the world™s popu -lation, or just under one-quarter of mankind. As well as being citizens of their respective countries, they also have a sense of belonging to the ‚ummah™, the worldwide Muslim community. ˜is publication sets out to ascertain the in˝u -ence some Muslims have on this community, or on behalf of the community. In˝uence is: any person who has the power (be it cultural, ideological -nancial, political or otherwise) to make a change that will have a signant impact on the Muslim world. Note that the impact can be either positive or negative, depending on one™s point of view of course. ˜e selection of people for this publication in no way means that we endorse their views; rather we are simply trying to measure their in˝uence. ˜e in˝uence can be of a religious scholar directly ad -dressing Muslims and in˝uencing their beliefs, ideas and behaviour, or it can be of a ruler shaping the so -cio-economic factors within which people live their lives, or of artists shaping popular culturrst two examples also point to the fact that the lists, and especially the Top 50, are dominated by religious scholars and heads of state. ˜eir dominant and last -ing in˝uence cannot be denied, especially the rulers, who in many cases also appoint religious scholars to their respective positions. ˜is doesn™t discount the signant amount of in -˝uence from other sectors of society. ˜e publication selects Muslim individuals from a range of categories of in˝uence, 13 in total: Ł Scholarly Ł Political Ł Administration of Religious Aairs Ł Preachers and Spiritual Guides Ł Philanthropy/Charity and Development Ł Social Issues Ł Business Ł Science and Technology Ł Arts and Culture Ł Qur™an Reciters Ł Media Ł Celebrities and Sports Stars Ł Extremists ˜e individuals are listed in each category accord -ing to geographical region (Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America), then in alphabeti -cal order by country and surname. How to measure this in˝uence is of course the most challenging aspect of the publication, and the one where opinions diverge the most. In˝uence can sometimes be gauged on a quantitative basis, the number of followers, the number of books written, the amount of sales etc., but moren it is not something measurable in quantitative terms and is more related to the qualitative and lastinct of that in˝uence. A combination of social metrics, public opinion (we have a month-long open call for nominations every year, and all of the suggestions are considered) and expert opinion are the basis of this attempt to measure in˝uence. ˜e achieve -ments of a lifetime are given more weight than achievements within the current year. People who are trailblazers, or the lone voice in a remote area are also taken into account as we give weight to people breaking barriers and to local in˝uence as well as global in˝uence. ˜is means that our list of names will change gradually, rather than dramatically, year-on-year. ˜is list acts as an opportunity to shed some light on the many challenges and pioneering triumphs that are present at the very crux of shaping the Muslim community. WHAT™S IN THIS ISSUE? As well as the updated Top 50 and 450 lists, we have our regular House of Islam essay which gives an overview of Islam and its branches. Our distinguished chief editor gives his thoughts on the Persons of the Year. We then have a contrib -uting guest editor giving us ‚A Selected Survey™. She shares her insights on events in selected countries and regions which havcted the Muslim world over the past twelve months. Our Guest Contributions section has exclusive ar -ticles covering a wide range of issues. ˜ese are sure to stimulate thought and discussion on current pressing issues. Our Book Reviews review some important books that have been published recently. ˜e ‚Major Events™ section provides a timeline of the major events that have taken place over the past year. Appendices I and II provide us with lots of statis -tics. Appendix I shows total population and Muslim population by country, for all the countries in the

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4world. Appendix II compiles a list of the highest Muslim Facebook, Twitter and Instagram users, as well as the highest in the world. To give a richer visual experience we have also included several calligraphy pieces throughout the book, which we hope will serve as a beautiful remind -er to pause and re˝ect as you go through the book. We have also added write-ups within the main body of the text about major initiatives (see Eco Legal Per -sona on page 22, the Amman Message on page 51, A Common Word on page 119, the Marrakesh Dec -laration on page 126, ˜e Muslim Council of Elders on page 134, Free Islamic Calligraphy on page 142, UN World Interfaith Harmony Week on page 154, and on page 167). Our website [www.˜] is a pop -ular destination. We welcome your feedback and will take nominations for the 2021 edition through it. ˜ere is no compulsion in religion. Rectitude has become clear from error; so whoever disbelieves in the false deity, and believes in God, has laid hold of the most ˚rm handle, unbreaking; God is Hearing, Knowing. ˜e Cow, 256 Calligraphy by Jawahir Al-Qur™an ©

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5PERSONS OF THE YEAR ˜ 2020 by Professor Abdallah Schleifer Woman of the Year RASHIDA TLAIB, US CONGRESSWOMAN American Congresswoman Rashi -da Tlaib (Democrat, Michigan) is this year™s Muslim 500 Woman of the Year. She is the rst Palestinian-American wom -an and joinrst Muslim woman (along with Ilhan Omar (Democrat, Minnesota) to be elected to the American Congress as member of the House of Rep -resentatives. (see their respective bios on page 134). She took her individual oate with her hand on the Quran. Although she is serving herst term ie she is certainly one of the most publicized members, largely because of President Trump who has publicly accused her and three other congress -women of colour (collectively known as ‚the squad™) of hating America and saying that they should figo back to where they came fromflŠa trope that has been used by white American nativists (a polite way to refer to racists) since the 19 th century responding to waves of immigrantsŠIrish, Italians, Jews (over -whelmingly from Russia and Poland), Latin Ameri -cans (popularly referred to as Hispanics) ignoring or oblivious to the fact that while Tlaib™s parents are Pal -estinian immigrants, Tlaib was born in America, so the best she could do is go back to Detroit.. Although Trump has denounced all of ‚˜e Squad™ he seems particularly obsessed with the Muslim congresswomen. ˜ey represent all that he despises. Apart from their faith, gender, and ethnic background, both are professed socialists. Tlaib is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America and Omar, while not a member of the DSA, has expressed a sympathy for democratic socialism. Both support the various welfare state measures proposed by Sen -ator Bernie Sanders. President Trump has referred to their politics as fisocialist-communist.fl Is Trump so ignorant not to know tharst in Russia and then nearly three decades later in eastern Europe no party sured under Communist rule as much as the So -cial Democrats (invariably the name of democratic socialist parties in Central and Eastern Europe)? Or is Trump malignant in his not at all exceptional indif -ference to the truth? But the most malicious move undertaken by Trump against the two Congresswomen involves his aborting Representative Rashida Tlaib listens to Representative Ilhan Omar addresses the press. 5

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