Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as “PPE”, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such
48 pages

63 KB – 48 Pages

PAGE – 3 ============
Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy workplace for their employees. OSHA™s role is to promote the safety and health of America™s working men and women by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach and education; establish-ing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.This publication provides a general overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine com-pliance responsibilities which are set forth in OSHA standards, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements the reader should consult current OSHA administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupa- tional Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts.Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not required.This information is available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: (877) 889-5627.

PAGE – 4 ============
2ContentsIntroduction4The Requirement for PPE5The Hazard Assessment6Selecting PPE8 Training Employees in the Proper Use of PPE9Eye and Face Protection9Prescription Lenses10 Eye Protection for Exposed Employees10 Types of Eye Protection11 Welding Operations12 Laser Operations16Head Protection16Types of Hard Hats18 Size and Care Considerations18Foot and Leg Protection19Special Purpose Shoes21 Foundry Shoes22 Care of Protective Footwear22Hand and Arm Protection22Types of Protective Gloves23 Leather, Canvas or Metal Mesh Gloves23 Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves24 Chemical- and Liquid-Resistant Gloves24 Care of Protective Gloves29Body Protection29 Hearing Protection30

PAGE – 5 ============
3OSHA Assistance32Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines33State Programs33 Consultation Services34 Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP)34 Strategic Partnership Program35 Alliance Program35 OSHA Training and Education36 Information Available Electronically36 OSHA Publications37 Contacting OSHA37OSHA Regional Offices38List of TablesTable 1: Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy13Table 2: Construction Industry Requirements for Filter Lens Shade Numbers for Protection Against Radiant Energy15Table 3: Selecting Laser Safety Glass16Table 4: Chemical Resistance Selection Chart for Protective Gloves26Table 5: Permissible Noise Exposures31Appendix A: OSHA Standards that Require PPE40

PAGE – 6 ============
4IntroductionHazards exist in every workplace in many different forms: sharp edges, falling objects, flying sparks, chemicals, noise and a myriad of other potentially dangerous situations. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers protect their employees from workplace hazards that can cause injury. Controlling a hazard at its source is the best way to protect employees. Depending on the hazard or workplace conditions, OSHA recommends the use of engineering or work practice controls to manage or eliminate hazards to the greatest extent possible. For example, building a barrier between the hazard and the employees is an engineering control; changing the way in which employees perform their work is a work practice control. When engineering, work practice and administrative controls are not feasible or do not provide sufficient protection, employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to their employees and ensure its use. Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as fiPPEfl, is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits. This guide will help both employers and employees do the following:˜ Understand the types of PPE. ˜ Know the basics of conducting a fihazard assessmentfl of the workplace.˜ Select appropriate PPE for a variety of circumstances.˜ Understand what kind of training is needed in the proper use and care of PPE.The information in this guide is general in nature and does not address all workplace hazards or PPE requirements. The information, methods and procedures in this guide are based on the OSHA requirements for PPE as set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 29 CFR 1910.132 (General requirements); 29 CFR 1910.133 (Eye and face protection); 29 CFR 1910.135 (Head protection); 29 CFR 1910.136 (Foot protection); 29 CFR 1910.137 (Electrical protective equipment); 29 CFR 1910.138 (Hand protection); and regulations that cover the construction industry, at 29 CFR 1926.95 (Criteria

PAGE – 8 ============
6employers provide PPE at no cost to the employee while others simply state that the employer must provide PPE. Appendix A at page 40 lists those standards that require the employer to provide PPE and those that require the employer to provide PPE at no cost to the employee.In a final rule on employer-paid PPE published in November 2007, all PPE, with a few exceptions, will be provided at no cost to the employee. The Nov. 2007 final rule also clarified OSHA™s requirements regarding payment for employee-owned PPE and for replacement PPE. The final rule is published at 72 Fed. Reg. 64341-64430 (Nov. 15, 2007).The Hazard AssessmentA first critical step in developing a comprehensive safety and health program is to identify physical and health hazards in the workplace. This process is known as a fihazard assessment.fl Potential hazards may be physical or health-related and a com-prehensive hazard assessment should identify hazards in both cat-egories. Examples of physical hazards include moving objects, fluctuating temperatures, high intensity lighting, rolling or pinching objects, electrical connections and sharp edges. Examples of health hazards include overexposure to harmful dusts, chemicals or radiation.The hazard assessment should begin with a walkthrough survey of the facility to develop a list of potential hazards in the following basic hazard categories:˜ Impact,˜ Penetration,˜ Compression (roll-over),˜ Chemical,˜ Heat/cold,˜ Harmful dust,˜ Light (optical) radiation, and˜ Biologic.In addition to noting the basic layout of the facility and reviewing any history of occupational illnesses or injuries, things

PAGE – 9 ============
7to look for during the walkthrough survey include:˜ Sources of electricity.˜ Sources of motion such as machines or processes where movement may exist that could result in an impact between personnel and equipment.˜ Sources of high temperatures that could result in burns, eye injuries or fire.˜ Types of chemicals used in the workplace.˜ Sources of harmful dusts.˜ Sources of light radiation, such as welding, brazing, cutting, furnaces, heat treating, high intensity lights, etc.˜ The potential for falling or dropping objects.˜ Sharp objects that could poke, cut, stab or puncture.˜ Biologic hazards such as blood or other potentially infected material.When the walkthrough is complete, the employer should organize and analyze the data so that it may be efficiently used in determining the proper types of PPE required at the worksite. The employer should become aware of the different types of PPE available and the levels of protection offered. It is definitely a good idea to select PPE that will provide a level of protection greater than the minimum required to protect employees from hazards.The workplace should be periodically reassessed for any changes in conditions, equipment or operating procedures that could affect occupational hazards. This periodic reassessment should also include a review of injury and illness records to spot any trends or areas of concern and taking appropriate corrective action. The suitability of existing PPE, including an evaluation of its condition and age, should be included in the reassessment.Documentation of the hazard assessment is required through a written certification that includes the following information:˜ Identification of the workplace evaluated;˜ Name of the person conducting the assessment;˜ Date of the assessment; and˜ Identification of the document certifying completion of the hazard assessment.

PAGE – 10 ============
8Selecting PPEAll PPE clothing and equipment should be of safe design and construction, and should be maintained in a clean and reliable fashion. Employers should take the fit and comfort of PPE into con-sideration when selecting appropriate items for their workplace. PPE that fits well and is comfortable to wear will encourage employee use of PPE. Most protective devices are available in multiple sizes and care should be taken to select the proper size for each employee. If several different types of PPE are worn together, make sure they are compatible. If PPE does not fit properly, it can make the difference between being safely covered or dangerously exposed. It may not provide the level of protection desired and may discourage employee use.OSHA requires that many categories of PPE meet or be equivalent to standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI has been preparing safety standards since the 1920s, when the first safety standard was approved to protect the heads and eyes of industrial workers. Employers who need to provide PPE in the categories listed below must make certain that any new equipment procured meets the cited ANSI standard. Existing PPE stocks must meet the ANSI standard in effect at the time of its manufacture or provide protection equivalent to PPE manufactured to the ANSI criteria. Employers should inform employees who provide their own PPE of the employer™s selection decisions and ensure that any employee-owned PPE used in the workplace conforms to the employer™s criteria, based on the hazard assessment, OSHA requirements and ANSI standards. OSHA requires PPE to meet the following ANSI standards:˜ Eye and Face Protection: ANSI Z87.1-1989 (USA Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection).˜ Head Protection: ANSI Z89.1-1986.˜ Foot Protection: ANSI Z41.1-1991.For hand protection, there is no ANSI standard for gloves but OSHA recommends that selection be based upon the tasks to be performed and the performance and construction characteristics of the glove material. For protection against chemicals, glove selection

PAGE – 11 ============
9must be based on the chemicals encountered, the chemical resistance and the physical properties of the glove material.Training Employees in the Proper Use of PPEEmployers are required to train each employee who must use PPE. Employees must be trained to know at least the following:˜ When PPE is necessary.˜ What PPE is necessary.˜ How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear the PPE.˜ The limitations of the PPE.˜ Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of PPE.Employers should make sure that each employee demon-strates an understanding of the PPE training as well as the ability to properly wear and use PPE before they are allowed to perform work requiring the use of the PPE. If an employer believes that a previously trained employee is not demonstrating the proper understanding and skill level in the use of PPE, that employee should receive retraining. Other situations that require additional or retraining of employees include the following circumstances: changes in the workplace or in the type of required PPE that make prior training obsolete.The employer must document the training of each employee required to wear or use PPE by preparing a certification containing the name of each employee trained, the date of training and a clear identification of the subject of the certification.Eye and Face Protection Employees can be exposed to a large number of hazards that pose danger to their eyes and face. OSHA requires employers to ensure that employees have appropriate eye or face protection if they are exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, potentially infected material or potentially harmful light radiation.

63 KB – 48 Pages