by JC MYERS · Cited by 11 — military and power aspects of warfare; the tangibles of terrain, enemy, weather, leadership, and The next dualism Brohi presents is that of Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb, the house of the early Arab Koraish, people of Mecca. transform the dar al-harb into dar al-Islam . . . in Islamic legal theory, the ultimate objective of.
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The Quranic Concept of War 1 JOSEPH C. MYERS The universalism of Islam, in its all – embracing creed, is imposed on the believers as a continuous process of warfare, psychological and political, if not strictly military. . . . The Jihad, accordingly, 2 Majid Khadduri P olitical and military leaders are notoriously averse to theory, but if there is a theorist abo ut war who matters, it remains Carl von Clausewitz, whose Vom Kriege ( On War ) has shaped Western 3 Both points are likely true and problematic since we find ourselves engaged in war with people no t solely imbued with western baseline studies of the Musli m prophet Muhammad or his ideological or military doctrine found 4 Would this be surprising? When it comes to warfighting military audiences tend to focus on the military and powe r aspects of warfare; the tangibles of terrain, enemy, weather, leadership, and troops; quantifiables such as the number of tanks and artillery tubes the correlation of forces. Analysts steer toward the familiar rather than the unfamiliar; people tend to t hink in their e too busy. Dr. Antulio Echevarria recently argued the US military does not have a doctrine for war as much as it has a doctrine for operations and battles. 5 The military has a deficit of strategic, and, one could add, philosophic thinking. In the war aga inst Islamist terrorism, how many have heard of 6 Is the political philosophy of Ayatollah Khomeini, who was in fact well – grounded in western political theory and rigorously rejected it, studied in our military schools? A 7 108 – 09 To understand war, one has to study its philosophy; the grammar and logic of your opponent. Only then are you approaching str ategic comprehension. To understand the war against Islamist terrorism one must begin to understand the Islamic way of war, its philosophy and doctrine, the meanings of jihad in Islam and one needs to understand that those meanings are highly varied and ut ilitarian depending on the source.

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With respect to the war against the global jihad and its associated terror groups, individual terrorists, and clandestine adherents, one should ask if there is a unique method or attitude to their approach to war. Is the On War that attempts to form their thinking about war? Is there a document that can be reviewed and understood in such a manner that we may begin to think strategically about our opponent. There is one work that stands out from the many. The Quranic Concept of War The Quranic Concept of War , by Brigadier General S. K. Malik of the Pakistani Army provides readers with unequalled insight. Originally published in Pakistan in 1979, most available copies are fo und in India, or in small non – descript Muslim bookstores. 8 One major point to ponder, when thinking about The Quranic Concept of War , is the title itself. The Quran is presumed to be the revealed word of God as spoken through his chosen prophet, Mohammed. According to Malik, the Quran places warfighting doctrine and its theory in a much different category than western thinkers are accustomed to, because it is not a theory of war derived by man, but of God. Clausewitz comes to divine presentation is in his discussion of the trinity: the people, the state, and the military. In the Islamic context, the discussion of war is at the level of revealed truth and example, well above theory Life, the Holy Quran gives us a philosophy of war as well. . . . This divine philosophy is an 9 Historiography In The Quranic Concept of War , Malik seeks to instruct readers in the uniquely important doctrinal aspects of Quranic effective . . . [and] points towards the realization of universal peace and justice . . . and makes maximum allowance to its adversaries to co – operate [with Islam] in a combined search for a j ust 10 historical, political, legalistic, and moralistic ramifications on Islamic warfare. It seemingly is Quran is a source of eternal guidance 11 The approach is not new to Islamists and other jihad of Moha hadith . The lessons learned are recorded 109/10 and form an important part of Quranic surah and scholarship. 12 Islamic scholars both Muslim and non – jihad doctrine and Quranic the classical views of jihad in many respects. 13

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decidedly confident and oc is not clear although one might believe that given the idealism of his treatise, his approaches to cals prone to use terroristic violence to accomplish their ends. For that reason alone, the book is worth studying. Introduction The preface by Allah Bukhsh K. Brohi, the former Pakistani ambassador to India, offers – page preface lays the foundation for the books ten chapters. Malik places Quranic warfare in an academic context relative to that di mensions. He then turns attention to the ethics and strategy of warfare. Toward the end of the book he reviews the exercise of Quranic warfare based on the examples of the Prophet are controversial ideas related to the means and objectives of war. It is these concepts that warrant the attention of planners and strategist. Zia – Ul – Haq (1924 – 88), the former President of Pakistan and Pakistani Army Chief of Staff, opens the book by focusing on the concept of jihad within Islam and explaining it is not simply the domain of the military: Jehad fi sabilallah is not the exclusive domain of t he professional soldier, nor is it restricted to the application of military force alone. This book brings out with simplicity, clarity and precision the Quranic philosophy on the application of military force within the context of the totality that is JE HAD. The professional state must, likewise, be aware of the ki nd of soldier that his country must produce and the only 14 General Zia states that all Muslims play a role in jihad , a mainstream concept of the Quran , that jihad in terms of warfare is a collective responsibility of the Muslim ummah , and is not restricted to soldiers. General Zia emphasizes how the concept of Islamic military professionalism requires patte 110/11 Battling Counter – initiatory Forces In the preface Ambassador Brohi details what might be startling to many readers. He states that

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developed. 15 Brohi then defines jihad Jehad , a word concept when he – on earth. 16 For the true Muslin the harmony an Mohammed as the Prophet of God. Man must recognize the last days and acknowledge tawhid , the oneness of God. 17 Brohi re counts the classic dualisms of Islamic theology; that the world is a place of struggle between good and evil, between right and wrong, between Haq and Na – Haq (truth and untruth), and between halal and haram (legitimate and forbidden). According to Brohi, i t is the duty of jihad – classical jihad doctrine developed by the mystical Sufi order and other Shia scholars. 18 Brohi places jihad in the context of communal if not imperial obligation; both controversial formulations: When a believer sees that someone is trying to obstruct another believer from traveling the road that leads to God, spirit of Jehad requires that such a man who is im posing obstacles should be prevented from doing so and the obstacles placed by him should also be removed, so that we [Muslims] become passive spectators of the counter – initiatory forces imposing a blockade in the way of those who mean to keep their faith with God. 19 This viewpoint appears to reflect the classic, collective duty within jihad doctrine, to defend the I slamic community from threats the concept of defensive jihad . Brohi is saying much more than that; however, he is attempting to delineate the duty the proactive duty to clear the path for Islam. It is necessary not only to defend the individual believer if he is being hindered in his faith, but also to remove the obstacles of those counter – initiatory forces hindering his Islamic development. This begs the question of what is actually meant by the initiatory forces. The answer is clear to Brohi; the force of of a believer to carry forward the Message of God and to bring it to notice of his fellow – men in handsome ways. But if someone attempts to obstruct him from doing so he is entitled as a matter of 20 111/12 This formulation would appear to turn the concept of defense on its head. To the extent that a Muslim may proclaim Islam and proselytize, or Islam, as a faith, seeks to extend its invitation

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and reach initiate its advance but is unable to do so, then that represents an overt threat justifying a defensive jihad which mankind has been fighting for the sake of either revenge or for securing . . . more land or mor e booty . . . [this] striving must be [is] for the sake of God. Wars in the theory of Islam are . . words, everywhere the message of God and Islam is or can be hindered from expansion, resisted defend its manifest destiny. 21 While his logic is controversial, Brohi is not unique in his extrapolation. His theory in fac t reflects the argument of Rashid Rida, a conservative disciple of the Egyptian Muhammad engendering the our religion is the proclamation of truth and the removal of distortion and misrepresentation of 22 No Nation is Sovereign The exegesi s of the term jihad is often debated. Some apologists make clear that nowhere in the Quran just or unjust and that justness depends on the ends of war. Brohi, a nd later Malik, make clear that the ends of war in Islam or jihad 23 The next dualism Brohi presents is that of Dar al – Islam and D ar al – Harb , the house of While explaining that conditions for war in Islam are limited (a constrained set of circumstances) ed to establish supremacy of the Lord only when every other argument has failed to convince those who reject His will and work against the very purpose of 24 Brohi quotes the Quranic manuscript Surah, al – Tawba : Fight those who bel ieve not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and fee l themselves subdued. 25 Acknowledging western critics who believe that Islam is in a state of perpetual struggle with the non – Islamic world, Brohi counters in a clearly dismissive tone by explaining that man is the slave to God, and defying God is treason under Islamic law. Those who defy God should be – m 112/13

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is dawa dawa and – defense to wage a war against Obviously, much turns on how threats and aggression are characterized. It is difficult to understand, however, based on the structure of his argument, that Brohi views non – believers and their states as requiring conversion over time by peaceful means; and when that fails, by forc e. He is echoing the doctrine of Abd al – Salam Faraj, author of Al – Farida al – Ghaibah , better known as The Neglected Duty , a work that is widely read throughout the Muslim world. 26 Finally, Brohi examines the concept of the ummah and the international syste Ummah of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, is incapable of being realized within the concept of the Islamic state. 27 For Muslims, the ummah is a tran scendent religious and cultural society united and reflecting the unity ( tawhid ) of Islam; the idea of one God, indivisible, one community, one belief, and one duty to live and become godly. According to the Prophet, a set pattern of thought, belief and practice . . . and supplies the spiritual principle of integration of mankind a principle which is supra – national, supra – racial, supra – linguistic and supra – 28 Quran itself. Mu slims and non – words, war is between Muslims and non – Muslims and not in actuality between states. It is nce Allah alone is the only 29 Here Brohi is echoing what Islamic scholars such as 30 The Divine Philosophy o n War General Malik begins by categorizing human beings into three archetypes: those who fear Allah and profess the Faith; those who reject the Faith; and those who profess, but are treacherous in their hearts. Examples of the Prophet and the instructions to him by God in his early campaigns should be studied to fully understand these three examples in practice. The author highlights the guidance dealing wit h the causes and objects of war, while later guidance focused on Quranic strategy, the conduct of war, and the ethical dimensions of warfare. 31 In Chapter Three, Malik reviews several key thoughts espoused by western scholars related to the causes of war. He examines the ideologies of Lenin, Geoffery Blainey, Quincy Wright, and Frederick H. Hartman each of whom spoke about war in a historical or material context with respect to the nature of the state system. Malik finds these explanations wanting and turn s to the Quran

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114/15 Pagans who accepted terms voluntarily without a treaty were respected. Those who refused, the Quran the Muslims to fulfill their treaty commitments for the con tracted period but put them under no 39 It also established the precedent that Muslims may conclude treaties with non – believers, but only for a temporary period. 40 Commenting on western approaches to peace, Malik views such appro worthwhile role to play even in the future. 41 only secular, not divine ends; and peace in an Islamic context is achieved only for the promotion of Islam. As the Prophet gained control of Mecca he decreed that non – believers could assemble or watch over the Sacred Mosque. He later consolidated power over Arabia and many who had not yet n to choose between – believers were required to pay a poll – tax or jizya and accept the status of dhimmitude [servitude to Islam] in order to continue practicing their faith. According to Malik the taxes were merely symbolic an d insignificant. In summarizing this relationship the 42 This view is in keeping with that jihad transform the dar al – harb into dar al – Islam . . . in Islamic legal theory, the ultimate objective of Islam is not war per se, but the ultimate establishment of pe 43 The Nature of War contribution to the understanding of warfare in its moral and spiritual context. The moral forces of war, as Clausewitz declared, are perhaps the most important aspects in war. Reiterating that makes it clear that in return for fig hting in the way of Allah, divine, angelic assistance will be rendered to jihad warriors and armies. At this point The Quranic Concept of War moves beyond the metaphysical to the supernatural element, unlike anything found in western doctrine. Malik highli mujahideen 44 The author then builds upon the jihad support, to argue that in order for the Muslim warrior to be unmatched, to be the bravest and the most fearless; he can only do so through the correct spiritual preparation, beginning with total Quran reveals that the moral forces are th 45 Malik quotes the Quran . and ye dislike a thing which is good for you and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But

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T he Quran instructs the jihad jihad warrior, 115/16 who dies in the way of Allah, does not really die but lives on in heaven. Malik emph asizes this in those Believers . . . Allah has granted a high 46 jihad warrior a 47 This theme of spiritual preparation and pure belief has appeared in the prolific jihad writings of Usaman Dan Fodio in the early 1800s and repeated by the Saudi writer Abdallah al – jihad a purer and more disciplined Muslim serves the cause of Islam better in peace and war. 48 se of force [that] have no – injunction of preserving and promoting pe ace and justice demands the use of limited force . . . . 49 Since Malik is speaking in the context of or re sponse. The author expands on the earlier ideas that moral and spiritual forces are predominate in war. He contrasts Islamic strategic approaches with western theories of warfare oriented toward the application of force, primarily in the military domain, as opposed to Islam where the focus is on jihad , which is total, Jehad is a continuous and never – ending struggle waged on all fronts including political, economic, social, psychological, domestic, moral 50 The power of jihad brings with it the power of God. The Quranic concept of strategy is therefore divine theory. The examples and lessons to be derived from it may be found in the study of the classics, inspired by such events as the battles of the Prophet, e.g., Badr, Khandaq, Tabuk, and Hudaibiyya. Malik again references the divine assistance of Allah and the aid of angelic hosts. He refers to the battles of Hunain and Ohad as believers, that t jihadi 51 Strike Terror int o their Hearts

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52 At this point he begins to develop his most controversial and conjectural Quranic theory related to warfare the role of terror. Readers nee d to understand that the author is thinking and writing in strategic terms, not in the vernacular 116/17 enemies, He chooses to do so by casting terror into their heart 53 He cites another verse, rategy thus enjoins us to prepare ourselves for war to the utmost in order to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies, known or hidden, while guarding ourselves from being terror – 54 Terror is an effect; the end – state. Malik ide Note that Faith is capitalized, meaning more than simple moral courage or fortitude. Faith in this sense is in the domain of religious and spiritual faith; this is the center of gravity in war. The preparing for this type Cause minds of the enemies. Malik then introduces the informational, psychological, or perception m 55 the strategic application of terror. par taken lightly, it essentially means that Islam is in a perpetual state of war while peace can only be defined as the absence of active war. Malik argues that peace – t ime training efforts should be mujahid . When armies and soldiers find limited physical resources they should continue and create synergy for future military action. rror as an objective principal of principal of Islamic warfare ma 56 essential

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preparations for jihad , actions will be oriented o n weakening the non – man can only be touched by terror. 57 117/18 Malik then moves to a more academic discussion of ten general categories inherent in the conduct of Islamic warfare. These categories are easily translatable and recognizable to most western theorists; planning , organization, and conduct of military operations. In this regard, the author offers no unique insight. His last chapter is used to restate his major conclusions, stressing Holy Quran lays the highest emphasis on the preparation for war. It want s us to prepare ourselves for war to the utmost. The test . . . lies in our capability to instill terror into the 58 Evaluation of The Quranic Concept of War slamic world neither can it be discounted. Though controversial, his citations are accurately drawn from Islamic sources and consistent with classical Islamic jurisprudence. 59 thought is an integral and inseparable part of 60 Policy planners and in that light. Malik makes clear that the Quran provides the doctrine, guidance, and examples for the conduct 61 thesis focuses on the fact that the primary reason for studying the Quran is to gain a greater understanding of these concepts and insights. The Prophet Mohammed, as the Quran attests, changed the intent and objective of war raising the sphere of war to a Godly plane and purpose; the global proclamation and spread of Islam. This obviously rejects the Clausewitizian politics and policy dyad: that war is simply policy of the state. war theory. Another important connotation is that jihad is a continuum, across peace and war. It is a constant and covers the spectrum from grand strategy to tactical; collective to the individual; from the preparatory to the execution phases of war. Malik highlights the fact that the preservation of life is not the ultimate end or greatest good in jihad is the desired end. Dying in this cause brings direct reward in heaven for the mujahid , sacrifice is invites 62 Readers may surmise that the training

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