IS EID AL-ADHA CONNECTED WITH THE HAJJ? Hood Bradford. (M.A. Islamic Sciences, Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi. Arabia). These are answers to

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In the Name of Allah, the Benevolent, the Merciful. IS EID AL-ADHA CONNECTED WITH THE HAJJ? Hood Bradford (M.A. Islamic Sciences, Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia) These are answers to some questions posed to me by one the brothers. Even though some of the issues raised are well beyond the scope of something this small, as well as beyond the reach of someone with as little knowledge as myself, I felt that a general answer may help some of the brothers and sisters come back to a state of equilibrium after emotions ran high. If any mistakes are found herein then it is from me and from Satan, and if anything mentioned is Correct then it is by the grace of Allah and his guidance. I™ll mention five main points here, being: 1. DETERMINING THE ISLAMIC CALENDAR: GLOBAL VS. REGIONAL SIGHTING 2. DETERMINING THE ISLAMIC CALENDAR: USING ASTRONOMY AND CALCULATIONS 3. EVIDENCE FOR ARAFAH BEING THE DAY THE PEOPLE STAND AT ARAFAH AND EID AL ADHAA COINCIDING WITH THE STONING OF THE JAMARAAT 4. PRAYING WITH THE REST OF THE MUSLIMS IN THE COMMUNITY 5. RUDENESS AND SPEAKING BAD OF OTHERS FOR FOLLOWING AN ISSUE WHICH THERE IS LEGITMATE DIFFERENCE OF OPINION 1

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1. DETERMINING THE ISLAMIC CALENDAR: GLOBAL VS. REGIONAL SIGHTING As for the statement concerning use of one standard method for determining the Calendar, then this is correct. The reason for this being that there are only two methods of determining the months related from the Salaf, using a global sighting (ittihaad al Mataali’) or a regional one ( ikhtilaaf al Mataali’). Whether or not either one is the correct to follow is a topic of debate from the time of the Salaf until today. Dr. Wahbah Al Zuhaili states: fiThe scholars differ, holding two separate opinions, about the obligation of fasting upon all the Muslims in both the eastern and western lands all at one time, according to the opinion held on the union of the lunar phases and their points of setting, or their divergence. According to the majority of the scholars the fast is to be unified between the Muslims, th ere being no consideration for the divergence of the points of setting. According to the scholars of the Shaafi™ee school the beginning of the fast and the Eid is determined according to the differences in the setting points of the Moon between remote distances. No consideration is to be paid to some of the scholars of the Shafi™ee school who stated a difference between lands which are near and those which are far according to the distance of shortening one™s prayer (89km).fl1 The evidence that the opinion of taking a global sighting are in brief, all the general texts mentioned about fi–when you see the moon then fast –fl this hadeeth as well as others like it being narrated by the likes of Bukhari, Muslim, Al Tirmidhi and others. Therefore to make these generalities specific to a specific group, region, or time would need clear evidence. For this reason as was mentioned above the majority of scholars held that the sighting be accepted from anywhere as long as the conditions for the sighting were fulfilled. What can be said here however is that those who combine the two (i.e. Ramadan with a local sighting and Hajj with the Hujjaj or a 2

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world sighting) have gone against the method of the Salaf in determining dates, it not having been related from any of them that they used a combination of the two methods. Therefore the community should make a decision to either follow one method or the other, and not a combination. This was stated by the like of Shaikh Ibn Baaz, Ibn Uthaimin, as well as others of the greater scholars of today. As for following the sighting of Makkah for all sightings year round, i.e using Makkah as a worldwide demarcation line for time and calendar dates, then as Shaikh Ibn Baaz said fiThis is an opinion for which there is no basis.fl For those that wish to follow the Muslims of another land, then they should not be blamed as long as they have precedence in doing so. Here I would like to quote that which the great scholar Ibn Aabideen Al Hanafi: –Yet being that detailed news [Istifaadhah] is on the level of the Mutawaatir report, and from that detailed news it was known that the people of that particular land fasted a particular day, it is obligatory to work according to that [report], because what is meant is that it is a land that has a legitimate Ruler [Haakim Shari™], as is the case in the Islamic lands, it being imperative that their Fast be based on the ruling of a legitimate Ruler [Haakim Shari™], This detailed news is in meaning the transfer of that legal ruling mentioned Œ and it is stronger than testimony [ shaahadah] Œ that the said land saw the moon on the said day and fasted on a particular day, because mere testimony does not convey certainty [yaqeen], and for that reason it is not accepted unless the ruling is witnessed to or their testimony is attested to so that it may be acceptable in the Shariah, if this is not done then it is nothing more than a mere report.2 Therefore those that accept the sighting of another Muslim land have been preceded by others, and it is improper to blame and accuse those that follow legitimate scholarship in issues that are differed in of harboring some form of deceitfulness or lack of understanding. Even with this said, an effort to achieve unity by both parties should be initiated and a common ground be reached. 3

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2. DETERMINING THE ISLAMIC CALENDAR: USING ASTRONOMY AND CALCULATIONS This is another topic of debate, yet of less intensity than the previous. The permissibility of using calculations for determining the base date of the beginning or end of the month was a minority opinion among the Salaf, ibn Rushd mentions it as the opinion of Muttaraf ibn Shikheer being one of the Major Taabi™een3. However, in the case of the moon setting before the sun, and the impossibility of seeing the new crescent, then several scholars have made statements that this is a permissible usage of the science. Ibn Uthaimin said concerning the previous mentioned scenario “It as if saying that one saw the sun rise before dawn.fl4 Abdullah ibn Manai’ has voiced a similar opinion.5 There is no doubt that discrepancies are abound and that a global effort by Muslims should be made to understand more on astronomy and moon-sighting so that all may partake in announcing the new moon, so that perhaps a unified Islamic calendar can one day be achieved. 3. EVIDENCE FOR ARAFAH BEING THE DAY THE PEOPLE STAND AT ARAFAH AND EID AL ADHAA COINCIDING WITH THE STONING OF THE JAMARAAT Al Baihaqi in Al Sunan narrates from Aishah [5/175] fiArafah is the day the Imam stands, and the day of sacrifice is the day the Imam sacrifices, and the day of breaking the fast is the day the Imam breaks the fast.fl This is from the narration of Ibn Al Munkadir from Aishah, even though Ibn Hajar said that he did not hear from Aishah, Al Tirmidhi mentions that he asked Al Bukhari concerning this and he replied affirming that he did hear from her.6 4

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Abu Dawood in Al Maraaseel mentions the Hadeeth fiThe day of Arafah is the the day in which the people stand at Arafahfl 7 Al-Baihaqi described it as fiMursal Jayyid.fl 8 Abu Dawood then mentioned the statement of Yazeed ibn Abeedah who said: fiThe year the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him died the people made Hajj without an Imam.fl Al Imam Al Shafi™ee says in Al Umm, fi The day of Eid in the same day as the Fitr, and the second Eid is the same day as the day of Adhaa, that being the tenth day of Dhil Hijjah, it being the day after Arafah–.and Hajj is allowed if they stood on Arafah according to their sighting, even if they then come to know that after their standing at Arafah that the day of Arafah was actually the day of sacrifice (yawm al Nahr). [Al Rabee then mentions Al Shafi™ee™s chain back to ibn juraij] Ibn Juraij said: I said to Ataa™ a man makes hajj for the first time, mistakenly the people stood at Arafah [on the wrong day]. Is this accepted from him? He said: Yes, indeed I swear it is acceptable. Al Shafiee said: And I recall that he said: the Prophet said fiThe Fast is when you all fast, breaking the fast is when you all break the fast, and the day of sacrifice is when you all sacrifi cefl and I see him as saying fiAnd Arafah is the day you stand at Arafahfl 9 Ibn Rajab mentions in Lataaif Al Ma’aarif:10 fiThe Second Eid is the Eid of sacrifice, being the greater of the two and the more virtuousand the day of Arafah is the day of emancipation from the hellfire, Allah emancipating from the hellfire those that stood at Arafah as well as those that didn™t from the different regions of the Muslim lands, Because of this the day after it was made an Eid for all Muslims in all Muslim lands.those making Hajj throw the stones, then begin to come out of the Ihram of Hajjslaughtering their sacr ificial animals, then making Tawaf around the House. The people of the [Muslim] Lands gather for the remembrance of Allah, his glorification, and in order to pray to him.fl 5

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He also said fiespecially the Eid of sacrifice, for the people on that day eat the meat of their sacrificial animals; those on hajj or otherwise.fl 11 As well as saying fiFasting the days of Tashreeq was only forbidden because they along with the day of sacrifice are Eids for the Muslims. For this [reason] one is not to fast while in Mina nor any other place according to the Majority [Jamhoor] of the scholars, indifference to Ataa’ who said the prohibition is specific for those in Mina–fl12Therefore the one who then fasts the 9th while knowing that it is the 10th and the people are in Mina is possibly in this case going against the prohibition or taking an irregular opinion indifference to the Majority of scholars. If however he didn™t know the situation would then be different. Al Buhooti mentions fi–And it is Sunnah to pray the Adhaa prayer early, so that it is performed at the same time those in Mina are sacrificing their Animals–fl [Sharh Muntahaa al Iraadaat 2/37] Similar has been narrated from Imam Ahmad. When discussing the takbeerat of Eid, Al-Nawawi mentions that the people are of two types as for Al Adhaa, Hujjaj (pilgrims) and other than them. He then states the varying times of when to commence the takbeerat and when to stop them. After stating that the Hujjaj begin their takbeerat from Zuhr the day of Nahr (the day of Eid) he then mentions the ruling for other than them saying (the most apparent of the opinions: is that they are like the Hujjajfl13 Ibn Al Arabi Al Maliki mentions in his book fiAhkaam al Quranfl14: Allah says (And remember Allah in numbered days). There are three issues at hand here–the second issue being specifying and determining these days– the truth in this matter being these days are determined to be three in number as is apparent, and specifying them as being connected to the throwing [of the stones in Mina], as is apparent also, as is [the fact that] the rest of the Muslims follow the Hujjaj in this matter. 6

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4. PRAYING WITH THE REST OF THE MUSLIMS IN THE COMMUNITY Ibn Qudaamah mentions that if the Eid prayer is not known until after the zenith, then the Imam should pray it the next day with the people16. The evidence for this is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood that this occurred in the life of the prophet.17 Therefore if the prayer may be performed the next day because of an excuse such as news of the moon being seen coming late or because of some fitnah that may occur, than perhaps it is better for those that, even though they see themselves as correct in following the Hujjaj, to pray along with their communities for the unity which the Eid was legislated for and to fulfill the hadeeth of Messenger (and the day of sacrifice is when you all sacrifice) in this way preserving the Unity of the Muslims in the persons particular area18. Al Buhooti mentions about praying the Eid prayer the next day that it would be permissible fiEven if they delayed the pray for no reasonfl 19 Surely then the unity of the community is a valid reason for delay, especially in Non-Muslim lands. 5. RUDENESS AND SPEAKING BAD OF OTHERS FOR FOLLOWING AN ISSUE WHICH THERE IS LEGITMATE DIFFERENCE OF OPINION As for this point then I would like the mention the words of Ibn Rajab from his treatise fiThe difference between advice and condemnation.fl He said: fi–If however the objective of the one refuting is to bring out the deficiency found in the one being refuted as well as to deduct from his stature, make people aware of his ignorance and shortcomings in knowledge or the like then this is forbidden in his lifetime as well as after his death. This action is included in that which Allah condemned and warned against in his book when speaking of al Hamz wa l-Lamz. It is also included in the Prophets statement fiOh you who have believed with your tongues and your hearts have yet to believe! Do not harm the Muslims and do not follow their mistakes. 8

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Whoever follows someone else™s mistakes then Allah will follow his mistakes, and he whom Allah follows his mistakes will be exposed by Allah even if he hides in the depths of his home.fl He also says: However, those that are known to have intended, through their refutation, to belittle, disgrace, and bring out the deficiencies of the one being refuted then here this person deserves to be punished so that he, as well as those like him, will cease from such lowly forbidden acts. As well as saying: In this situation, is one that thinks bad about the innocent in an unlawful way, this being of the type of doubt forbidden by Allah and his Messenger, coming under Allah™s statement ((And he who gains a mistake or a sin then accuses the innocent of the same has committed slander and great sin)) (al Nisaa:112)–. His entering under this warning Œ I mean here the one doubting the innocent – is strengthened when he shows evil signs such as transgression and assault, lack of piety, loose speech, increased backbiting, slander, and envy of that which Allah has given the people from his virtue and grace–and Omar is reported to have said fiDo not think bad about a statement that your brother Muslim has made when you find that it can be considered good.fl20 It therefore surprising to find that brothers and sisters that pride themselves on following one of the righteous Imams, and see the validity of Taqleed in matters of Ijtihaad would spend the virtuous time of these first ten days of Dhil Hijjah disparaging those that do not agree with them in their positions. Even though this type of character may have been shown by some individuals, I highly doubt that it is to the pleasure of the community leaders who are known to call to and exemplify the Prophetic manners. In conclusion: I sincerely advise the brothers and sisters to fear Allah at this time of Eid, a time which should be one of joy and happiness, and to put 9

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away their differences outwardly so that the Muslims are not object of more ridicule by the disbelievers, especially when disagreements such as these occur. An attempt must be made by all the gain Allah™s pleasure and follow our religion to the utmost. May Allah accept our good deeds, and grant Us the strength the persevere in these times of tribulation. I ask Allah to enter Us into his paradise so that we may face each other as brothers on lofty thrones, all enmity being removed from our hearts; and that we be granted the blessing of looking to his noble face and that he becomes pleased with Us, never being discontent with Us after that. And may Allah shower his blessings upon Our beloved Messenger, his family, and his companions. Hood Bradford The Islamic University of Medinah ))(( 1 [Al Fiqh Al Islami wa adillatuhu, 3/1658] 2 [Al Mutee™ee, Muhammad Bakheet, Irshaa d Ahl Al Millah. (Dar ibn Hazm) P.148-149] 3 [Bidayat al Mujtahid, (Maktabah ibn Taymiyah) 2/142-143] 4 [See for Ibn Uthaimin’s statements and a more detailed discussion of the subject] 5 [Found in an article on] 6 [Al Sunan, 78-3/156, #802] 7 [Al Maraaseel #141] 8 [Similar is mentioned by Al Busa iri in Ithaaf al khiyarah from Al Haarith ibn Abi Usamah. [#2577]] 9 [Al Shaafiee, Imam Muhammad ibn Idrees (Dar Al Wafaa: Dr. Rif™at Abdul Muttalib) 2/145] 10 [Ibn Rajab, Lataaif Al Ma’aarif P.482] 11 [Ibid. P.486] 12 [Ibid. P.506] 13 [al nawawi, rawdat al talibin, (al maktab al islami) 2/80] 14 [Ibn Al Arabi Al Maliki Ahkaam Al Quran] 15 [Ibn Taymiyah, Majmoo al Fataawa, 24/227] for this an d the previous reference I am grateful to Sh. Abu Khalid Al Sulami. 16 [see al kaafi, (daar al kitaab al arabi) 1/298] 17 [See Abu Dawood, Al Sunan. # 1157, Al NIsaai 3/146 and Ahmad 5/58] 18 [For delaying the prayer for fitnah, se e ibn al qasim, haashiyah al Rawd. 2/495] 19 [sharh Muntahaa al Iradaat 2/36-37] 20 [Ibn Rajab, The difference between advice and condemnation] 10

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