The Library Media Specialist test is designed to measure the knowledge and the Praxis tests at ets/s/praxis/pdf/passing_scores.pdf or on.
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2The Praxis ® Study Companion Welcome to the Praxis ® Study Companion Welcome to the Praxis ® Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis® test. Using the Praxis® Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day. This guide can help keep you on track and make the most e˜cient use of your study time. The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including: Ł An overview of the Praxis tests Ł Speci˚c information on the Praxis test you are taking Ł A template study plan Ł Study topics Ł Practice questions and explanations of correct answers Ł Test-taking tips and strategies Ł Frequently asked questions Ł Links to more detailed information So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before test day. Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many di˛erent ways to successfully prepare for your test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you. Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck! Know What to Expect Which tests should I take? Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for the teaching area you wish to pursue. Before you register for a test, con˚rm your state or agency™s testing requirements at .How are the Praxis tests given? Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see page 35).

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3The Praxis ® Study Companion Welcome to the Praxis ® Study Companion What should I expect when taking the test on computer? When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identi˚cation at the test center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like. Where and when are the Praxis tests o˜ered? You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an international network of test centers, which includes Prometric® Testing Centers, some universities, and other locations throughout the world. Testing schedules may di˛er, so see the Praxis web site for more detailed test registration information at www. .

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4Table of Contents Table of Contents The Praxis ® Study Companion guides you through the steps to success 1. Learn About Your Test .5Learn about the speci˜c test you will be taking 2. Understanding Question Types .13Become comfortable with the types of questions you™ll ˜nd on the Praxis tests 3. Practice with Sample Test Questions .15Answer practice questions and ˜nd explanations for correct answers 4. Determine Your Strategy for Success .26Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and e˚cient 5. Develop Your Study Plan 29Develop a personalized study plan and schedule 6. Review Smart Tips for Success 33Follow test-taking tips developed by experts 7. Check on Testing Accommodations 35See if you qualify for accommodations to take the Praxis test 8. Do Your Best on Test Day 36Get ready for test day so you will be calm and con˜dent 9. Understand Your Scores .38Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores Appendix: Other Questions You May Have .40The Praxis ® Study Companion

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Step 1: Learn About Your Test 1. Learn About Your Test Learn about the speci˜c test you will be taking Library Media Specialist (5311) Test at a Glance Test Name Library Media Specialist Test Code 5311Time 2 hoursNumber of Questions 120Format Selected-response questions Test Delivery Computer delivered Approximate Approximate Content Categories Number of Percentage of Questions Examination I. Program Administration 21 18% II. Collection Development 26 21% III. Information Access and Delivery 26 21% IV. Learning and Teaching 33 28% V. Professional Development, 14 12% Leadership, and Advocacy VIVIIIIIIAbout This Test The Library Media Specialist test is designed to measure the knowledge and abilities of examinees who have had preparation in a program for school library media specialists, grades KŒ12. Because programs in school librarianship are o˛ered at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the test is appropriate for examinees at either level. The test is aimed at the level of knowledge appropriate for the person who is responsible for administering the library media program at the individual school level. The content generally parallels the knowledge and skills in Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs and the ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Preparation of School Librarians (2010).The test content is aimed at the level of knowledge appropriate for the person who is responsible for administering the library media program at the individual school level. The material in the test, therefore, would not be suitable for those in systems with di˛erentiated sta˜ng or for those at the district level. The 120 selected-response questions cover program administration; collection development; information access and delivery; learning and teaching; and professional development, leadership, and advocacy. This test may contain some questions that will not count toward your score. The Praxis ® Study Companion 5

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The Praxis ® Study Companion 6Step 1: Learn About Your Test Content Topics This chapter is intended to help you organize your preparation for the test and to give you a clear indication of the depth and breadth of the knowledge required for success on the test. Virtually all accredited undergraduate or graduate library media programs address the majority of these topics, subtopics, and even minor topics. Moreover, the content of the Library Media Specialist test generally parallels the knowledge and skills in Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs and in the ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Preparation of School Librarians (2010) . You will ˚nd much similarity between the content of Empowering Learners and the ALA/AASL Standards and the content of the Library Media Specialist test. For example, media specialists exhibit speci˚c behaviors with regard to teaching and learning. Goals and principles related to these behaviors are re˝ected in Empowering Learners , and explanations and evidence of these target behaviors are re˝ected in the ALA/AASL Standards . The Library Media Specialist test will assess your knowledge of this content. The same is true for other critical areas of the test, such asŁ Program administration Ł Collection development Ł Information access and delivery Ł Professional development, leadership, and advocacy Familiarizing yourself with both the ALA/AASL Standards and Empowering Learners , in addition to reviewing your course work, will give you a good foundation for preparing for your Library Media Specialist test. Try not to be overwhelmed by the volume and scope of content knowledge in this guide. Although a speci˚c term may not seem familiar as you see it here, you might ˚nd you can understand it when applied to a real-life situation. Many of the items on the actual test will provide you with a context to apply to these topics or terms. Discussion Areas Interspersed throughout the study topics are discussion areas, presented as open-ended questions or statements. These discussion areas are intended to help test your knowledge of fundamental concepts and your ability to apply those concepts to situations in the classroom or the real world. Most of the areas require you to combine several pieces of knowledge to formulate an integrated understanding and response. If you spend time on these areas, you will gain increased understanding and facility with the subject matter covered on the test. You may want to discuss these areas and your answers with a teacher or mentor. Note that this study companion does NOT provide answers for the discussion area questions , but thinking about the answers to them will help improve your understanding of fundamental concepts and will probably help you answer a broad range of questions on the test. I. Program Administration Program Administration is the organization, administration, and evaluation of the library media program. Successful library media programs are well organized and reach out to all facets of the learning community, providing materials and services to meet all educational needs. To prepare for items addressing this portion of the test, you should refer to your texts from course work addressing program administration, as well as to chapters 1 and 3 of Empowering Learners . Program Administration covers the following areas: A. Organization, administration, and evaluation of the library media center 1. Organization a. shared decision making b. philosophy and mission statements c. goals and objectives for programs d. short- and long-range planning e. needs assessmentsf. promotion of programs, resources, and services to students, sta˛, and community B. Management 1. Budgetinga. short- and long-term ˚nancial objectives b. prioritizing budgetary needs c. articulating and justifying budgetary needs d. tracking spending

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The Praxis ® Study Companion 8Step 1: Learn About Your Test 2. The components of a selection policy a. policy statement b. responsibility, criteria, and procedures for selection c. organization and maintenance of materials d. deselection criteria and process e. policy review and revision 3. Relationship between the curriculum, the school community, and the development of a selection policy 4. Selecting and maintaining resources a. supporting and enhancing the curriculum b. meeting the needs of diverse learners c. using statistical information to evaluate the collection d. using standard selection and collection development tools ŒChildren™s Core Collection ŒMiddle and Junior High School Core Collection ŒSenior High Core Collection Œdigital resources, such as Book˚nder and Titlewave 5. Using standard review tools for resources in multiple formats a. Booklist b. School Library Journal c. The Horn Book d. Bulletin of the Center for Children™s Books e. Children™s Technology Review f. Kirkus Reviews g. New York Times Book Review 6. Using bibliographic sources for resources in all formats a. Books in Print series b. Library of Congress catalog c. periodical directories d. vendor catalogs 7. Developing a professional collection 8. Selection criteria for equipment and services a. library management systems b. online subscription services c. audiovisual materials d. computer materials e. book processing services B. Acquiring resources 1. Materials acquisition sources a. publishersb. wholesalersc. subscription services d. vendors e. government agencies 2. Ordering and budgeting procedures for acquiring resources a. bidding process b. encumbering funds c. types of budgets, such as line item or program d. purchase order process C. Organizing resources 1. Descriptive and subject cataloging, and using cataloging tools a. CIP (Cataloging in Publication) b. Sears List of Subject Headings c. Resource Description and Access (RDA) d. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition (AACR2) e. Dewey decimal classi˚cation system 2. Purpose and format of MARC records a. authorshipb. bibliographic control 3. Interpreting basic MARC tag ˚elds a. Library of Congress card number b. ISBNc. author main entry d. title information e. editionf. imprint g. physical description h. annotationi. topical subject heading 4. ShelvingD. Circulating Resources 1. Loan, renewal, and reserve procedures 2. Promoting new acquisitions and services to students, sta˛, and the community Discussion areas: Collection Development Ł What is a selection policy and why should a library media center have one in place? Ł Who should approve and adopt the selection policy? Ł What is the relationship between the curriculum, the school community, and the development of a selection policy? Ł What is the value of collection development? Ł What is the importance of developing and maintaining a profession collection in the library media center?

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The Praxis ® Study Companion 9Step 1: Learn About Your Test Ł How does a library media specialist acquire and import digital cataloging data? Ł What are the standard procedures for the physical arrangement and placement of materials? Ł What should a library media specialist consider when determining borrowing, renewal, and reserve procedures? Ł What are some methods for promoting new resources and services to the school and the greater community? III. Information Access and Delivery Information access and delivery covers a large ˚eld of knowledge. Review your course materials on accessing, using, and evaluating information from resources in all formats. Also familiarize yourself with ethical and legal issues related to the availability and use of information. Chapters 1 and 3 of Empowering Learners can be helpful in preparing for items in this part of the exam, as is the ALA web site, at www.ala. org .A. Knowledge of information resources and their uses1. Print and nonprint resources a. booksb. journals, periodicals c. videos, DVDs, CDs d. databasese. maps, posters f. reference resources 2. Web-based, networked, and stand-alone digital resources a. accessing di˛erent digital resources b. locating information c. evaluating information d. downloading and uploading ˚les e. netiquette 3. Terminology, including jargon, related to digital resources, digital equipment, and the digital community a. search engine strategies b. accessing directories c. managing email and listservs d. criteria for validating information e. elements of Web 2.0 4. Community resources a. guest authors/illustrators b. speakers/readers c. storytellers 5. Building collaborative relationships with other libraries 6. Purpose and general process of interlibrary loan7. Remote access a. online catalogsb. databasesc. Web links d. distance learning 8. Equal access to services and programs a. adaptations for diverse learners b. procedures for assisting users c. compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and other federal regulations d. physical arrangement of the library media center 9. Environmental factors that promote learning a. safety b. lighting and sound control c. signage d. decor10. Legal and ethical issues a. con˚dentiality of records b. copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property c. acceptable use policy d. use of ˚lters 11. Bibliographic citation for resources in various formats Discussion areas: Information Access and Delivery Ł What methods can be used to e˜ciently navigate the Internet? Ł What criteria can be used to validate information gathered from various technologies? Ł How can a library media specialist apply current and emerging technologies to library media center management, program, and services? Ł What are the bene˚ts of developing relationships with other libraries? Ł How does the physical arrangement of the library media center a˛ect equal access?

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The Praxis ® Study Companion 10Step 1: Learn About Your Test Ł What are the legal and ethical issues related to intellectual property, copyright, and plagiarism for various formats of materials? IV. Learning and Teaching This category of the test gets at the heart of library media instruction. It focuses on knowledge of students as learners, the general principles of lesson planning and delivery, assessment, curriculum development, information literacy standards and models, the collaborative teaching process, and research in literacy and other ˚elds related to school library media. You should also familiarize yourself with the various awards the ˚eld uses to recognize outstanding works of literature and other media, as well as authors/ illustrators who are prominent in the ˚eld of literature and media for children, including the ˚eld™s history and development. Chapters 1 and 2 of Empowering Learners can be helpful in preparing for items in this part of the exam. The ALA web site ( ) can also provide information about literary and other media awards, including past recipients. A. Knowledge of literature 1. Major book and media awards a. criteria for selection b. recent winners 2. Prominent authors/illustrators and their work 3. Characteristics of di˛erent types of literature a. ˚ction genres b. short stories c. biography d. poetry e. dramaf. folk literature g. graphic h. informational 4. Research relevant to reading and information literacy 5. Trends and issues relevant to reading instruction a. research-based reading programs b. reading workshop c. reading incentive programs B. Curriculum Development and Integration 1. Research on information literacy instruction a. Eisenberg and Berkowitz b. Lancec. Loertscher d. Kuhlthaue. Todd 2. Information literacy standards a. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner b. National Educational Technology Standards c. state and local standards 3. Information problem-solving models a. Big6b. Kuhlthau™s research process model c. stripling model d. I- Search 4. Alignment of the library media program with the school curriculum 5. Strategies for developing collaborative relationships a. integrating information literacy skills across the curriculum b. collaborating with teachers to design, instruct, and assess lessons and units C. Instructional Design 1. Developmental characteristics of school-age children a. Physical, social, cognitive, and emotional characteristics b. How developmental characteristics guide instructional planning 2. Basic tenets of predominant learning theories a. Behaviorism b. Cognitivism c. Constructivism 3. Elements of a lesson plana. instructional objectives in cognitive, a˛ective, and psychomotor domains b. instructional strategies c. learning resources and materials d. meeting the needs of diverse learners e. asssessment4. Bloom™s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 5. Characteristics of inquiry-based learning 6. Selecting and using assessment methods and tools a. portfolios b. conferencing

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The Praxis ® Study Companion 11Step 1: Learn About Your Test c. observation d. testing e. rubrics and checklists 7. Classroom management a. managing time and space b. fostering a positive learning environment c. expectations for student conduct d. behavioral intervention strategies Discussion areas: Learning and Teaching Ł What are the common elements of information problem-solving models? Ł How does using the information problem- solving models approach enhance student acquisition of skills? Ł Why is teaching information literacy skills in collaboration with a classroom teacher more meaningful to students than teaching skills in isolation?Ł What is the role of the library media specialist in collaboration?Ł How would you establish collaborative relationships with colleagues? Ł What learning activities are associated with cognitivism? behaviorism? constructivism? Ł What constitutes an observable and measurable instructional objective? Ł What is the relationship between Bloom™s taxonomy and planning instructional objectives? Ł How can a library media specialist address the needs of diverse learners? Ł How can a library media specialist collaborate with teachers to design opportunities for inquiry-based learning? Ł How is assessment used to inform instruction? Ł How is classroom management of the library media center similar to and di˛erent from classroom management in a classroom? V. Professional Development, Leadership and Advocacy Questions in this category focus on the role of the library media specialist outside of the traditional teaching and administrative contextŠas an education professional, a school and community leader, and an advocate. To help you prepare for these items, review your course work in these areas and chapters 1 and 4 of Empowering Learners. There is also much useful information on the ALA web site, at .A. Professional Development 1. Organizations related to school library media a. American Library Association (ALA) b. American Association of School Librarians (AASL) c. Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) d. Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) e. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) f. Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) g. state and local organizations 2. Professional development activities a. learning communities and study groups b. conferences and workshops c. mentoring d. independent research e. committees and task forces 3. Re˝ective practice a. re˝ective journal or portfolio b. self- and peer assessmentc. incident analysisd. critical friend Discussion areas Ł What is the role of the professional organizations associated with school library media?Ł How does quality professional development help the library media specialist perform the job better?

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