Muslim. It also means divine judgement. Din ul-fitrah. Description of Islam as the ‘natural way of life’. Du’a. Varying forms of personal prayer and supplication. Eid.

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1.Zakat(giving of charity) is one of the ‘pillars’ of Islam.(a)Describe: (i)the practice of Zakat;(ii)who should receive Zakat.(7 marks)(b)Explain the meaning andimportance of charitable giving for Muslims.( 8 marks)(c)‘You should give to charity because you want to, not because your religion says you should.’Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.(5 marks)(Total 20 marks)(SEG SYL A Paper 2, June 1995)2.Questions (a)–(d) can be answered in a single word, phrase or sentence. Question (e) requires a longer answer.(a)During which month should Muslims obey the command to fast? (1 mark)(b)What is Tawhid?(1 mark)(c)What does the word Qur’anmean?(1 mark)(d)Name twogroups of people who are excused from making the pilgrimage to Makkah.(2 marks)(e)Explain the importance of prayer in Islam. (5 marks)(Total 10 marks)(SEG Paper 148011, Section A, 1998 Short Course Specimen Questions)3.Birth, marriage and death are important family occasions in Islam. Select oneof these.(a)(i)Describe the religious customs associated with the occasion you have chosen.(5 marks)(ii)Explain the importance to the family of these customs. (5 marks)(b)Who do you think benefits most from these customs – the individual, the family or the community? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view.(10 marks)(NEAB Short Course Paper 4, 19 June 1997)(Total 20 marks)QUESTIONS141Questions

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4.(a)How many times a day do Muslims pray? [1](b)Describe threeof the Five Pillars of Islam.[7](c)Why are these rituals and beliefs important in a Muslim’s life? [7](d)‘Prayer is the most important part of a believer’s life.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Islam in your answer.[5](MEG Sample Paper, Summer 1998)5.(a)What does the word ‘ wudu’ refer to?(2 marks)(b)What do Muslims mean by the word ibadah?(6 marks)(c)Describe and explain how Ramadan makes a difference to a Muslim’s daily life.(8 marks)(d)‘If religious people were really generous, there would be no poverty.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer showing you have considered another point of view.(4 marks)(Total 20 marks)(London (1479) Specimen papers for May/June 1999)142QUESTIONS

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AbdArabic, meaning ‘slave (or servant) of Allah’, as in Abdullah; it indicates the status of human beings as doers of God’s will Abu Bakr The first Khalifahor successor to the leadership of the Muslim community when the ProphetMuhammad died Adam The first man and the first prophet of Allah; this is the same Adam who, with Eve, lived in the Garden of Eden until God sent them away for sinning Adha A feast held to coincide with the annual sacrifice which takes place at Makkah, near the end of the HajjAdhan The call to prayer, made five times a day to Muslims from every mosque; it is from the same root as ‘Mu’adhin’, one who makes the call to prayer Ahmadiyyah A reform movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1839–1908), who announced that he was the expected Mahdiof Islam (see under al-Mahdi)Aishah One of the wives of the Prophet Muhammad, daughter of Abu BakrAkhirah Everlasting life after death Akhlaq Attitudes, ethics and behaviour al-Amin The ‘Trustworthy’: a name used to describe the Prophet Muhammad al-Aqsa Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, ‘The Farthest Mosque’: it is in Jerusalemal-Fatihah ‘The Opener – surah1 of the Qur’an; it is recited at least 17 times daily during the five times ofsalat. It is also known as ‘The Essence’ of the Qur’anal-hamdul-li-Llah Lit: ‘Praise belongs to Allah’; it is often used as an expression of thanks to Allah Al-isrd The Festival of The Prophet’s Night Journey and Ascension al-Kafi Lit: ‘Enough’ or ‘Sufficient’; this is the title of the books of Hadithcompiled by Muhammad ibn-Yaqub Koleini, a Shi’ahscholaral-Khulafa-ur-Rashidun Lit: The ‘Rightly-Guided’ Khalifahs: they were the first four successors to the leadership role ofthe Prophet Muhammad. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and AliGLOSSARY143Islam: a glossary

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al-MadinahThe ‘City of the Prophet’, the name given to Yathrib after the Prophet moved there in 622 CE and founded the first Islamic state; note that it is a shortened form of Madinatu’n-Nabiyyal-Mahdi Lit: ‘The guided one’: he will appear towards the end of time to restore righteousness. This is the expected and promised Messiah Al-Miraj The ascension into Heaven by the Prophet Ali Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, he was the husband of Fatimah (al-) Zahrah, and thefather of Hassan, Hussein, and Zainab – the fourth ‘Al-Khulafa ur-Rashidun’ according to Sunnisand the first successor accepted by Shi’ahIslamAllah Derived from the Arabic ‘al-ilah’, this is the name of the Supreme Being. The Arabic term has nosingular, plural or gender. Allah is the sole deity with no associates, and no images of him are per- mitted. The attributes of Allah are rehearsed in the 99 Most Beautiful Names, which are often recited with the aid of prayer beads Allahu Akbar Allah is most great Ansar Lit: ‘supporters’, they were the Muslims of Madinah who welcomed and supported those Muslims who came from Makkah Aqd Nikah Marriage Arafat A plain a few miles from Makkah where pilgrims gather to worship, pray and ask for forgiveness on the ninth day of the Islamic month of Dhul-HijjahAsr (salat-ul-Asr) Mid-afternoon salat, which is any time from mid-afternoon until half an hour before sunsetAs-Salamu alaykum An Islamic greeting, literally ‘Peace be upon you’ Assirat Bridge The entrance to Heaven Ayah Lit: sign; a unit within a Surahof the Qur’anBarakah Blessings Bilal The first Mu’adhinof Islam, who was once an Abyssinian slaveBismillah ‘In the name of Allah’ Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim ‘In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful’, the preface to all surahsof the Qur’anexcept the ninth Caliph See KhalifahDa’if Weak; one of the classifications of Sunnah Dar ul-harb Lit: ‘the house of war’, or those areas of mankind that Islam has not yet subdued Dar ul-Islam Lit: ‘the house or abode of Islam’, this means the lands under Islamic rule Da’wah Inviting people to Islam, literally or by preaching and the example of good actions Dawud The prophet to whom the Zabur (psalms) were revealed144ISLAM

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DhikrLit: ‘remembrance’, it means to remember Allah by mention of His names, and His reminder to men, which is in the Qur’an, the relevant sections of which should be recitedDhimmi A non-Muslim living freely under the protection of an Islamic state Dhul-Hijjah The month of the hajj, last month of the Islamic yearDin Religion in general and religious duties in particular; it includes the five basic obligations of theMuslim. It also means divine judgementDin ul-fitrah Description of Islam as the ‘natural way of life’ Du’a Varying forms of personal prayer and supplication Eid See IdEid-ul-Nahr Festival of Immolation Fajr (salat ul-Fajr) The dawn salat, performed at any time from dawn until just before sunriseFana In SufiIslam this is a term meaning the passing away of the self, either momentarily or permanentlyFard An obligation under Divine Law, such as the five daily times of salatFatihah The title of the first surahof the Qur’an; see al-FatihahFatimah(al-) ZahrahMuhammad’s daughter and the wife of Ali, the mother of Hassan, Hussein and ZainabFatwa A legal opinion given by a Muslim mufti, by which the Shari’ahis applied to cases or issues sothat its authority and precedents may be upheld Fiqh Islamic jurisprudence; it is the legal order as exercised in the courts and expounded by the several schools of law Fitnah Originally trial or persecution borne by believers in Muhammad, it was later used to describe sedition or conspiracy against the Islamic state Five Pillars of Islam Five duties incumbent on all Muslims: (1) Shahadahor the profession of faith and confession ofthe Unity of God; (2) Salator prayer; (3) Zakator almsgiving; (4) Saumor fasting; (5) HajjorPilgrimage to Makkah Ghusl Greater ablution; the formal washing of the whole body before worship Hadith Tradition in Islam from the sayings and deeds of Muhammad as reported and recorded by his household and companions, this is a major source of Sunnahor obligatory lawHafiz Someone who has learned the Qur’anby heartHajar The wife of the Prophet Ibrahimand the mother of the Prophet Isma’ilHaji(Hajji)A Muslim male who has completed HajjHajiah(Hajja)A Muslim female who has completed HajjHajj Pilgrimage to Makkah in the sacred month; the fifth pillar of IslamGLOSSARY145

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HalalAny action which is permitted or lawful; for example, meat that is slaughtered according to Islamic requirements Hanif A seeker after true religion; in the Qur’anAbraham is an example of a God-fearer before thecoming of Islam Haram Anything unlawful or forbidden Hasan– good; one of the classifications of SunnahHijab Lit: ‘curtain’ or ‘veil’, used to describe the headscarf of modest dress for women. This involves covering everything except the face and hands in front of anyone other than the immediate family Hijrah Lit: ‘migration, emigration, departure or exit’; in 622 CE Muhammad and 100 followers left Makkah for Madinah which is about 300 km away. A new community was set up there. This date is the beginning of the Islamic calendar Hira The name of the mountain near Makkah where the Prophet Muhammad used to go for solitude and to worship. This is where he received the first revelation of the Qur’anIbadah(Ibadat)This covers all acts of worship and covers any permissable action performed with the aim of obeying Allah. It comes from the verb ‘Abada’ (to serve), and ‘Abd’ (a slave) Iblis The Angel who defied Allah by refusing to bow to Adam, and later became the tempter of all mankind. See also Shaytan Ibrahim Abraham, a prophet of Allah to whom the ‘Scrolls’ were revealed Id (Eid) Lit: ‘recurring happiness’, this is a religious holiday, a festival and feast for thanking Allah Id mubarak A greeting on Islamic festivals: ‘Happy Id!’ Id-ul-Adha Festival of the Sacrifice commemorating the Prophet Ibrahim’s willingness to do Allah’s will by sacrificing his son Isma’il. It is also known as Id ul kabir– the ‘Greater Id’ and Qurban BayramorFeast of Sacrifice in Turkey Id-ul-fitr(Eid-ul-Fitr)This is the day after Ramadan ends, and is also the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month. It is also known as Id Eid-al-asagharor the ‘Lesser Id’, and it is the Turkish Sheker Bayramor ‘Sugar’feast Ihram The state of ritual purity necessary for hajjor umrah; it also refers to the plain white garmentsworn by male pilgrims to show the equality, brotherhood and purity of the pilgrim Ijma The general consensus in SunniIslam on matters of law, practice and usageIjtihad The initiative of experts and pioneers in facing and responding to new situations in Islam Ikhlas Religious sincerity as an ethical ideal in Islam as set out in the Qur’an, surah112, named IkhlasImam Lit: ‘leader’; someone who leads communal prayer/public worship in a mosque or elsewhere. The imamis not a priest and has no authority. The Shi’itesgave the title to their leaders, descen- dents of the Prophet through his daughter FatimaImamah Religious authority in Shi’ahIslam as successor to the Prophet as leader of the Muslimcommunity Iman Faith146ISLAM

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KhitanCircumcision Khums The additional contribution to zakatof one-fifth of surplus annual income paid by the Shi’ahMuslims as demanded in surah8:41Khutbah ‘Speech’: a talk delivered on special occasions such as the Jum’ahand IdprayersKufr The ultimate evil; disbelief in Allah and His signs, rejection of revelation and thanklessness(Compare with Shukr.)LabbaikaIt means ‘Here I am before Thee’ and is the cry of greeting of the Muslim pilgrim in Makkah Laylat al-qadr The Night of Power when the first revelation of the Qur’anwas made to the Prophet Muhammadduring the last ten days of RamadanMaghrib (salat ul-Maghrib) Sunset salat, which can be performed after sunset until daylight endsMahr Dowry given by husband to wife Maryam The virgin mother of the prophet IsaMasjid Lit: Place of prostration; mosque Makkah The city where Muhammad was born, it is the spiritual centre of Islam and is in Arabia. In the centre is the sacred Mosque, and the Ka’bahwith the Black Stone. Legend links its foundationwith Adam and its development with Ibrahamand Isma’il(Ishmael)Madinah The tomb of the Prophet is there, and it is still a place of pilgrimage second only to Makkah. (See also al-Madinah.)Mihrab The niche or alcove into which the imamprays, it indicates the direction of Makkah, of the‘qiblah’ for those worshipping in the mosqueMina A place near Makkah where pilgrims stay on the 10th, 11th and 12th of Dhul-Hijjahand performsome of the activities of the Hajj, including stoning three pillarsMinaret The tower near a mosque from which the muezzincalls the faithful to prayer, five times a day; itwas probably a fire tower or beacon originally Minbar Rostrum, platform or dais: the stand from which the imamdelivers the khutbahor speech in themosqueor place of prayerMiqat Lit: A ‘place appointed’ at which the pilgrims enter into the state of ihramMosque Building for Muslim public worship, it is normally in the form of a square, with an open court- yard containing a watertank for ritual washing. It has an area for prayers, with a pulpit, and a recess in one wall which shows the direction of Makkah. This word is derived from the Arabic ‘Masjid’, meaning a place of prostrationMuezzin (Mu’adhdhin) The man who calls the faithful to prayer; he does this five times a day from the minaretof themosque. The name is derived from the Arabic word Mu’adhdhin’: the adhancallerMufti Islamic lawyer who gives judgements or fatwabased on the Shari’ahor religious lawMuhajirunThose who took part in the Hijrahwhen Muhammad and his followers migrated from MakkahtoMadinahin 622 CE148ISLAM

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MuhammadLit: ‘Praised’: he is the final Prophet and was born in Makkah around 570 CE. At the age of 40 he experienced visions and revelations which form the basis of the Qur’anMuharram The first month in the Islamic calendar which is reckoned from the time of the migration to Madinah Mumin A person who wholeheartedly yields to Allah’s guiding wisdom and so is in harmony with His will and at peace with himself and all creatures Munafiqun This is the term used in surahlxiii of the Qur’anto describe hypocritesMurid This is the first stage in Sufidiscipleship; the would-be seekerMuslim Someone who submits to the will of God in any age or time Muslim One who has submitted to the Will of God, and has accepted Islam Muzdalifah Place where pilgrims camp for the night after standing at Arafat during hajjNabi Prophet of Allah Nifaq A Muslim term for hypocrisy, or pretended belief in the Qur’anwhich is devoid of sincere faithNiyyah Lit: ‘intention’; the statement of intent made before all acts of worship such as salat, hajjor sawmPilgrimage The fifth pillar of Islam is the duty to undertake a pilgrimage to Makkah(Hajj), at least once in alifetime Prophet The Qur’anidentifies many figures in the Old and New Testament as prophets (this includesJesus), but believes that Muhammad is the final prophet of Allah. Qadi– Muslim judgeQadar Allah’s complete and final control over the outcome of events or destiny. (See also Laylat al-qadr.)Qiblah The direction to which Muslims must turn in prayer towards the Ka’bahin Makkah. (See alsomihrab.)Quraish The tribe to which Muhammad belonged; the ruling authorities in Makkah Qurbani Eid The Festival of offering Qur’an That which is read or recited; it is the Divine book revealed to the prophet Muhammad on the Night of Power. It is Allah’s final revelation to mankind. It has 114 surahsor chaptersRabb Lit: ‘Lord’, the title most frequently for Allah al-Rajim The Muslim name for Satan (‘the accursed one’, see also Iblis), it means ‘one who is stoned’, andis derived from the stone-throwing ceremony at Makkah Rak’ah A unit in salat, made up of recitation, standing, bowing and two prostrationsRaka’at The Muslim ritual of repeating several prayers with obligatory bodily positions in a specified sequence Ramadan The ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which involves fasting during the hours of daylight, it celebrates the month when the Qur’anwas ‘sent down’GLOSSARY149

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RasulMessenger of Allah Ruku Bowing in Salat Sabr Patience and fortitude under adversity; the staying power which is the fruit of firm reliance on God Sa’y Walking between Safa and Marwah as part of Hajj, in remembrance of Hajar’ssearch for waterfor her son Isma’ilSadaqah A voluntary payment or good action for charitable purposes Safa and Marwah Two hills in Makkah, near the Ka’bah; now next to the grand mosqueSahih al-Bukhari The title of the books of Hadithcompiled by Muhammad ibn Ismail al Bukhari, a Sunnischolar,this collection is described as Sahihor ‘Authentic’Sahih Muslim The title of the books of Hadithcompiled by Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a Sunnischolar,the collection is described as Sahihor ‘Authentic’Salat (salah) This is ritual or liturgical prayer in Islam, and is the second Pillar of Din; it is performed fivetimes a day Salat ul-Jum’ah The weekly congregational prayer and attendance for the khutbahperformed at middays onFridays Salik The second stage of Sufidiscipleship, the journeyerSaqim Infirm; one of the classifications of Sunnah Sawm(also Saum)Fasting, especially during Ramadan, it lasts from dawn till sunset every day during the ninthmonth of the Islamic calendar. This includes all food, drink (including water), smoking and sexual relations Seveners Muslims who accepted the seven Imams, and in 765 CE accepted the leadership of Isma’il, thusbecoming the ancestors of the Isma’iliMuslimsShahadah The declaration of faith, the witness and confession of the Kalimah; the first Islamic Pillar of Din:‘There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ Shari’ah Canon Law of Islam based on the Qur’anand Sunnah, but more commonly used to mean all thecommandments of God concerning human actions Shaytan The ‘accursed’; a name given to Iblisor SatanShi’ah The Islamic sect which regards Alias the first true Khalifah, they believe in the successorship ofAli and the eleven of the most pious knowledgeable descendents of his after the Prophet Muhammad. It is the official religion of Iran, and has subdivisions such as the Imamisand theIsma’ilis Shirk Lit: ‘association’, this is the cardinal sin of idolatry or deification. This applies to any deviation from the exclusive worship of the one true God Shukr Gratitude for divine mercy Sirah The career or biography of Muhammad150ISLAM

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SufiA Muslim mystic Sujud Prostration in Salat Sunnah From the Arabic for ‘custom’; the path of tradition; the theory and practice of orthodox Islam, following the standards of Muhammad Sunni The broad mass of Islam who rely on the Qur’an, the Sunnahand the community. They rejectthe Shi’ahImamsSurah Division or chapter of the Qur’an Tanzil The descent or downward flow of inspiration that came to Muhammad Taqlid Authoritarianism, unquestioning adherence to a traditional school of teaching in Islam Tariqah The Sufiway of discipline and initiation into divine knowledge through self-transcendence andself-mortification Tawhid The driving motive of Islam: the doctrine of divine unity, that God is one; let God be God alone Ulama Islamic doctors of theology or law. They are the guardians of Islamic teaching Ummah The world-wide family of Islam ‘Urf Customary law, from which the content of Islamic Shari’ahis derivedWahhabis An Islamic community which has been the main influence in Saudi Arabia since 1924, it was founded by ‘Abd al-Wahhab (1703–92) Wahy The state of mind and spirit in which Muhammad received and communicated the Qur’anWalima Marriage celebration Wasil The final stage of SufidiscipleshipWudu Washing before prayer: the hands, forearms and legs below the knees must be washed, the face, mouth and nose must be rinsed Zakat (zakah)-ul-fitrAlmsgiving; the third of the five Pillars of Islam Zawiyah A local Muslim community or ‘cell’ sharing devotion and spiritual exercises Zuhd The call to abstinence or a religious lifeGLOSSARY151

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