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Inspiration mining: intersecting improbable connections in a new landscape of cultural reflection and influence Paulo Maldonado 1,2,3 Leonor Ferr‰ o1,2 1 Universidades Lus™ada, CITAD Ð Centro de Investiga“‰o em TerritŠrio, Arquitetura e Design, Rua da Junqueira, 188 -198, 1349 -001 Lisboa, Portugal 2 Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Arquitetura, CIAUD Ð Centro de Investiga“‰o em Arquite tura, Urbanismo e Design , Rua S⁄ Nogueira, Polo Universit⁄rio, Alto da Ajuda, 1349-055 Lisboa, Portugal 3 Universidade de …vora, Escola de Artes, Departamento de Artes Visuais e Design, CHAIA Ð Centro de HistŠria de Arte e Investiga“‰o Avan“ada , Pal⁄cio do Vimioso, Largo Marqu’s de Marialva 8, 7000 -809 …vora, Portugal paulomaldonado @inspaedia.com, lferrao @fa.ulisboa.pt Abstract. This article aims to present a critical reflection on the collaborative curatorship of the exhibition ÒIntersecting Improbable Conn ectionsÓ. It is a transdisciplinary exhibition covering architecture, design, arts, among other fields, and calls for non -linear productive thinking strategies. It explores the intersection of unlikely relationships to inspire memorable visits to museums , and it feeds the Insp¾dia platform, creating a new landscape of reflection and cultural influence. It advocates a new concept of exhibition curation that minimizes costs (because it does not involve transportation or insurance for the pieces) and is intend ed to help stimulate creative processes. Based on a selection of content from the participating museumsÕ permanent exhibitions, duly marked with QR Codes, visitors can access that content that is already available on the Insp¾dia platform and explore poten tially endless connections, without losing contact with the physical object (and vice versa). Keywords: User Experience Design á Inspiration Mining á Curatorship á Interaction Design á Insp¾dia 1.!Introduction The article aims to present and encourage a critical reflection on the curatorial project of the exhibition ÒIntersecting Improbable Connections Ó (2019 Ð 2023). The exhibition follows the interactive and collaborative intelligence platform 1 (Fig. 1) , whose development comes from doctoral research in 1 ÒInsp¾dia is a kind of a revolution in perception, because it enables a new kind of visualization and the use of related contents, as well as a new kind of interface and interaction. It encourages non-linear thought, productive thought (hig h creativity) and

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design with the title Innovation, Design et cetera at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal (2006 Ð 2012) [1]. The Insp¾dia project (Ò an inspiring collaborative intelligence network Ó) was later supported by financial and human resources provided by the CAPES / Brazil Science without Borders Program , through the Special Visiting Research fellowship in the Post -Graduate Program in Design of the Federal University of Rio Grand e do Sul, Brazil (2014 -2016). It culminates with the post -doctoral research ÒInsp¾dia Design UXD: inspiring collaborativ e and interactive intelligence Ó at the Lisbon School of Architecture, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal (2016 Ð 2017). During this process, the project was presented, discussed, validated and published on several occasions in different contexts and media (international conferences and national meetings, in paper and digital formats ) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]. The Insp ¾dia project brings together a research team to review and achieve the Insp¾dia objectives. The research team has been instrumental in preparing the launch of the Ins p¾dia platform. The exhibition Ò Inte rsecting Improbable ConnectionsÓ will celebrate that launch. Next, an outline of the procedural itinerary of this exhibition is presented for reflection and discus sion. Considering that the launch objectives need emotional and collaborative involvement of the largest possible num ber of users at a global scale Ð the Insp¾diers 2 Ð we set up an online and offline launch strategy that is viral and innova tive. T he curatorial and exhibition concept aims to inspire memorable experiences in a new landscape of cultural reflection and influence which crosses , directly or indirectly, the followi ng curating areas of interest : Design; Innovation; Art; Photography; Cinema ; Perform ing Arts; Video Art; Architecture; Painting; Sculpture; Conferences; Exhibitions; Multimedia; Materials; Music; Historic Sites; Libraries; Universities; Teaching; Res earch Centers; Research ; M edia; Sustainability; Inclusive Design; Color; Digital Media; Digital Games; Trends ; Fashion Design ; Branding; Entrepreneurship; Augmen ted Reality; Digital Technology É The stra tegy that informs the following curatorship project is related to the growth str ategy of Content Curators, as well as the amount of content and relationships among content to be made available on the Insp¾dia platform: once the number of 100 Content Curators (CC) has been reached , each one refers 2 new CC s and is responsible for checking and validating the new content on the platform. The process is repeated until a network of 700 CC s is attained . Estimating an average production of 3 pieces of content per day and 9 related pieces of content per CC, this means 766 500 new pieces of content per year and 2 299 500 new related pieces of content per year as well. inspiration Ð a memorable and playful user experience Ó [11 ]. Inspiring experiences Òto be innovation Ó together is the Insp¾dia ethos. 2 The insp¾diers are collaborative visual storytellers who are always looking for the next productive spark (designers from a large variety of areas, architects, photographers, film directors, teachers from all teaching levels , researchers, artists from a large variety of areas, curators, entrepreneurs, managers, politicians, philosophers, university students et cetera) .!

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2.!Methods ÒIntersecting Improbable Connections Ó is an inspiring transdisciplinary exhibition that crosses several fields and summons, from a methodological point of view, nonlinear strategies 3, productive thinking 4 and collaborative curation, exploiting the intersection of improbable relations between content to inspire 5 new experiences . Collaborative curatorship is both the underlying concept of the Insp¾dia conceptual model and t he online pla tform that makes it operational: ÒWe have developed a new way of operationalizing innovation and design processes inspired by the three previous models of providing knowledge (library, encyclopedia and museum), reverting them to the virtualities that the network allows. We crossed the notes of the concept of rhizome with those of the concept of library and arrived at the concept of labyrinth Ó [12]. The content from different curatorial areas available on the platform derive s from an individual and collaborative ability to discover and present them visually, as well as unlikely relationships that can be established between them (existing or new relationships) to provoke jumps in the Insp¾diersÕ perception and inspire pr oductive thinking processes . The method used during the research process to build the Insp¾dia platform focused on: Case Studies, Concept Mapping, Content Anal ysis, Contextual Design Custom Experience Audit; Ergonomic Analysis; Experience Prototyping; 3 The collaboration of Content Curators from different disciplinary areas makes it possible to make numerous connections and configure non -linear itineraries in inspiration processes in the context of productive thinking. ÒCr eativity is just connecting things. When you ask a creative person how they did something, they may feel a little guilty because they didnÕt really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. ThatÕs because they were able to connect experiences theyÕve had and sy nthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that theyÕve had more experiences or have thought more about their experiences than other people have. Unfortunately, thatÕs too rare a commodity. A lot of people in our industry havenÕt had very diverse experiences. They donÕt have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions, without a broad perspective on the problem. The broader oneÕs understanding of the human experience, the better designs we will haveÓ [13 ]. 4 Wertheimer [14] coined the term Òpro ductive thinking Ó and Mari [15] proposed its use instead of creativity, because this term has suffered much wear and tear given its abusive application in common discourse. The context in which we speak of productive thinking is that of high creativity Ð a concept that is opposed to that of common creativity (Csikszentmihalyi 1997) [16]. Rudolf Arnheim (1904 Ð 2007) grasped the essence of the concept in the same sense we intend to use it : ÒProductive thinking is characterized, in arts and in sciences, by the interplay between the free interaction of forces within the field and the more or less solidified entities that persist as invariants in changing contexts Ó [17]. 5 Inspiration means: encouragement; enthusiasm; genius; incentive; influence; insight; motivation; revelation; vision; afflatus; animus; approach; arousal; awakening; brainchild; brainstorm; creativity; elevation; exaltation; fancy; flash; hunch; illuminatio n; impulse; motive; muse; notion; rumble; spark; spur; stimulation; thought; whim; deep thing; inflate. The Visual Thesaurus [18 ] relates Inspiration with: idea; thought; stirring; divine guidance; intuition; brainchild; inhalation; breathing in; intake; a spiration and Inspire with: instigate; prompt; occasion; enliven; exalt; invigorate; animate; revolutionize; breathe in; inhale; cheer; exhort; pep up; root on; urge; urge on.

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Experiments; Exploratory Research; Focus Groups; Interviews; Literature Reviews; Mind Mapping; Observation; Participant Observation; Personas; Prototyping; Rapid Iterative Testing Evaluation (RITE); Research Through Design; Scenarios. We have called on KumarÕ s ÒSeven Modes of the Innovation Process Ó [19 ]: i) Òsense intent Ó; ii) Òknow context Ó; iii) Òknow people Ó; iv) Òframe insights Ó; v) Òexplore concepts Ó; vi) Òframe solutions Ó; vii) Òrealize offerings Ó to set up the scenarios that are both at the origin of our online and offline exhibition concept and the user experience (UX) . Firstly, the Content Curators (A1 + A2) (i .e. the A uthors) select other Insp¾dia Content Curators (B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 ) from different cultural areas (architecture, design, cinem a, photography, media arts ) to create (or insert ) new content to feed new visual narratives (ÒTrailsÓ). The Content Curators also select the host s of the exhibition Ò Intersecting Improbable ConnectionsÓ : starting with a list of 137 museums (from 32 countries), they invite each director to participate, choosing o ne or more Content Curators (C1 + C2 + C3 + C4É) . The three curatorial teams (A + B + C) Ð select and relate each pair of pieces of content , both physical (from the museum sÕ permanent collection s) and digital ( what is already available on the Insp¾dia) , duly marked with QR Code s, so the visitors can access that particular piece of content and explore its endless connections, without losing contact with the physical object (and vice versa). The following Insp¾dia functionalities allow those interactions: ÒMapÓ, Ò Tim e LineÓ, ÒMy CollectionÓ, ÒCollectionsÓ, ÒMy TrailÓ, ÒTrails Ó and ÒGet InspiredÓ (the latter challenges fl›neurs to explore Insp¾dia) (Fig. 2 -15). Fig. 1. Insp¾dia imagotype. Source: Authors, 2016 . Fig s. 2, 3. Visiting the Design Museum permanent exhibition: Braun content . Source: Authors, 2018. Fig. 4. QR Code to access to Braun content on Insp¾dia. Source: Authors, 2019 . The relationship s between the different Content Curators are collaborative and interactive, dynamic and rhizomatic, to produce unexp ected intersections between different cultural areas and allowing Insp¾diers and museum visitors to jump to unexpected contents and contexts; to provide infinite possibilities that may update and refine creative processes (i.e. to generate new insights and foresights ). We also expect visitors to the exhibition ÒIntersecting Improbable ConnectionsÓ to become Insp¾diers (as Fl›neurs or perhaps Content Curators). Each Content Curator creates a narrative linking it to at least one piece from the museum Õs permanent collection to relate it to other s on Insp¾dia. Each of these

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narratives (saved in the Insp¾dia functionality ÒMy CollectionÓ) can intercept others, provoking detours (jumps) which are essential for the effectiveness of the inspiration mining processes . Fig s. 5Ð12. Visiting Insp¾dia: from Braun to Jonathan Ive . Source: Authors, 2019 .

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This is the reverse of what Insp¾dia Content Curators usually use, as it starts from the real ( located ) to the virtual (not located). The process of creating new visual narratives results in the expansion of the Insp¾dia content and, consequently, increases the number of opportunities for intersection s with related content . Finally, it fulfils Insp¾diaÕ s strategic goals of growth and creates unique experiences for visitors to the ÒIntersecting Improbable ConnectionsÓ exhibition that can stimulate productive thinking processes. Fig s.13, 14. Back to the Design Museum Õs permanent exhibition: Apple content . Source: Author s, 2018 . Fig.15. QR Code to access Apple content on Insp¾dia. Source: Authors, 2019 . The exhibition concept is both collaborative and democratic, because it allows any visitor to be come a Content Curator and increases collaborative intelligence and critical reflection . Visitors are invited to register on the Insp¾dia platform to be able to save the content they considered to be the most inspiring , along with the visual narratives of the Content CuratorsÕ tripartite team to build their own collection in ÒMy Collection Ó. They can share it by sending an e -mail. The ÒShareÓ and ÒSend FeedbackÓ func tionalities are fundamental to provid ing the desired and expected viral contagion (interaction> at traction> love). It is our intention to invite the MA AT Ð Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology (Lisbon, Po rtugal) to be the main host of the exhibition ÒIntersection Improbable Connections Ó. A multi -screen will be installed in its entrance space to access and watch , in real time , all interactions, digital and physical itineraries and the geo -referenced location of visitors to all the permanent exhibitions of the participating museums. A series of conferences at the host -museum broadcast via streaming and workshops for children (K -12 schools) will complement and diversify the visit or experience. We strongly believe this to be an unprecedented, me morable and inspiring curatorship concept to inspire produc tive thinking processes. I t is part of a mult idisciplinary curat orship and provides an (almost ) infinite collection of related digital content that is transported to reality through bi and three -dimensional physical pieces to produce new reflections and interpretations of material and immaterial culture linked by the following tags : Abandoned Cities; Abandoned Places; Abstract Art; Abstract Expressionism; Abstractionism; Advertising; Aerodynamics; Aesthetics; Africa; Age And Aging; Alternative Consumption; Amsterdam; Analogy; Anthropology; Architect; Architectural Restoration; Architectural Renovation;

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Memorabilia; Metal; Method; Middle Ages; Migrations; Milan; Mimesis; Mimicry; Mind Map; Miniature Illustration; Minimalism; Mirabilia; Model; Modern Movement; Modernism; Modernist Typography; Modernity; Modernization; Montr”al; Moscow; Motion Graphic Design; Motorcycle Design; Multiculturalism; Museums; Museums Studies; Music; Music Festivals; Mythology; Myths; Naples; NASA ; Nationalism; Natural History; Natural Lighting; Natural Sciences; Nazism; Neo; Neo Crafts; Neo -Impressionism; Neo -Tribes; Neocapitalism; Neo classicism; Neoliberalism; Neoplasticism; Neorealism; New Look; New Materials; New Media; New York; Nineteenth Century; North America; Nostalgia; Notebook; Novelty; Oceania; Office Design; Open Innovation; Opera; Oporto; Oslo; Packaging; Painting; Panoptic on; Paris ; Parlour; Participation; Participatory Design; Patent; Pattern; Pattern Book; PCM (Production -Consumption -Mediation) Paradigm; Performance; Performance Arts; Philosopher; Philosophy; Photography; Physics; Pictogram; Picture Book; Plain Style; Pla stics; Plywood; Poet; Poetry; PoŁesis; Poietic; Pop Art; Popular Culture; Porcelain; Porcelain; Portfolio; Portuguese Empire; Post -Impressionism; Post -Modernism; Post -Structuralism; Postcards; Postcolonialism; Poster Design; Post -industrial Society; Positivism ; Poverty; Prague; Prefabrication; Prints; Product Engineering; Production; Productive Thinking; Propaganda; Prosumers; Prototyping; Psychology; Public Space; Publishing; Purism; Quilting; Radial Plan; Railway Design; Railways; R ajasthan; Realism; Recreation; Rec ycling; Reformation; Refrigerators; Regionalism; Religion; Renaissance; Rendering; Representation; Retail; Retail Design; Revivals; Revivals; Rhetorics Of Needs And Wants; Rituals; Rococo; Roman Empire; Romanticism; Rome; Ruins; Russia; Samples; San Francisco; San Petersburg; Sanitary ware; Scandinavian Design; Scenography Design; School; School Of Design; Science; Science And Technology Museums; Science Fiction; Scientific Housekeeping; Scrapbook; Scroll; Seat; Semiotics; Senses; Sensibility; Service Design; Service Industry; Seventeenth Century; Sex; Sexuality; Shelving ; Sign; Silk; Skill; Smart Phone; Sociability; Social Class; Social Design; Social Distinction; Social Exclusi on; Social Exclusivity; Soc ial Inclusivity ; Social Innovation; Social Issue; Social Mobility; Social Movements; Social Reform; Social Scie nces; Socialism; Socialist Realism; Sociology; Sofa; Software Design; Sound Design; South America; Souvenirs; Space Perception; Stage Design; Sta ined Glass; Standardization; Still Life; Storage; Store; Streamlining; Style; Styling; Subculture; Subjectivity; Suburbia; Suprematism; Surrealism; Sustainability; Symbolism; System; Table; Tablet; Tableware; Tableware; Taste; Taylorism; Technique; Technol ogy; Teenagers; Television; Television Set Design; Textile Design; Textile Design & Manufacture; Textiles; Theater; Theatre Set Design; Theory; Thesis; Tools; Tourism; Toys; Tradition; Transculturation; Transgression; Transport; Transport Design ; Transitional Object; Trans avangua rdia; Trenchcoat; Trendology; Trousers; Tudor Style; Twentieth Century ; Typeface; Typography; Unesco Heritage Sites; Uniformity; Uniforms; University; Urban Cultures; Urban Design; Urbanization; Urban Space Renovation ; USA; User Culture; UxD (User Experience Design); Vaporware ; Venice; Vernacular; Verona; Vicenza; Video; Video Art; Vienna; Viennese Actionism; Vision; Visual Culture; Visual Culture ; Vorticism ; VR (Virtual Reality); Wallpaper; War; Water Closet; Web Design; Well -Being; Wiener Secession; Wiener Werkbund; Wiener Werks−tte; Wikinomics; Wood ; Wool; Work; Workshop; World Exhibitions.

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Acknowledgements. This research is financed by national funds by FCT Ð Funda“‰o para a Ci’ncia e a Tecnologia, in the scope of the projects SFRH/BPD/98427/2013, UID/EAT/04008/ 2019 , and UID/AUR/04026/2019. The authors are grateful to the following institutions and people : Funda“‰o para a Ci’ncia e a Tecnologia, Portugal ; Programa Ci’ncia sem Fronteiras CAPES, Brazil; CITAD Ð Centro de Investiga“‰o em T err itŠrio, Arquitetura e Design, Universidades de Lus™ada, Lisboa, Portugal; CIAUD Ð Centro de Investiga“‰o em Arquitetura, Urbanismo e Design, Faculdade de Arquite tura , Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; CHAIA Ð Centro de HistŠria de Arte e Investiga“‰o Avan“ada da Universidade de …vora, …vora, Portugal ; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Fernando Moreira da Silva, AntŠnio Pinto Duarte, AntŠnio C›mara, Nuno Correia, F⁄bio Teixeira; Pablo Ermida, Maria Passos, Rita Noronha, Pedro Silva, Rui Dias, Carlos B⁄rtolo , Pedro Cortes‰o Monteiro, In’s Simłes, M⁄rio Matos Ribeiro, Graziela Sousa, Marco Neves, Pedr o Oliveira, VerŠ nica Conte, Raquel Webber, Bruna Gugliano, Felipe Viaro, Jos” Rocha and Marcelo Halpern . References 1. Maldonado, P.: Inova“‰o , Design et cetera (Innovation, Design and so on). PhD Dissertation, Universidade T”cnica de Lisboa (2012) 2. Maldonado, P., Ferr‰o, L., Ermida, P.: Insp¾dia: Changing the Landscape of Cultural Reflection and Influence Through User Experience D esign . In: Rebelo F., Soares M. (eds .) Advances in Ergonomics in Design 2017. LNCS , vol. 588 , pp. 462 -468. Springer , Cham (2018) 3. Maldonado, P.: Design: uma vis‰o estrat”gica (Design: a strategic vision). Ms c Dissertation, Universidade do Porto (1997) 4. Maldonado, P.: Insp¾dia: design, inova“‰o et cetera (Insp¾dia: innovation, design and so on). Universidade Lus™ada Editora , Lisboa (2017) 5. Inspaedia, https://www.inspae dia.com 6. Maldonado, P. et al.: Insp¾dia: [almost] everything about simplicity, playf ulness and inspiration. In: Soares, M. et al. (eds.) Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, U sability & Special Populations. LNCS, vol. 486, pp. 231 -243, Spinger, Cham (2016) 7. Maldonado, P . et al. : Insp¾dia User Experience D esign (UXD). Procedia Manufactoring, 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences. LNCS, vol. 3, pp. 6044 -6051. Springer, Cham (2015) 8. Maldonado, P., Silva, F.M., Gon“alves, F.: Insp¾dia, Inspiring a Collaborative Intellige nce Network: Designing the User Experience. In: Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. & Marek, T. (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE 2014 . LNCS , pp. 463 -472. Springer, Cham (2014) 9. Maldonado, P. & Ferr‰o , L.: Insp¾dia: uma Rede de Intelig’ncia Colaborativa Inspiradora (Inspaedia: a Collaborative Intelligence Network). Actas de DiseŒo Ð III Congreso Latinoamericano de EnseŒanza del DiseŒo, AŒo VIII, vol. 15, pp.193 -197. Universidad de Palermo, Buenos Aires (2013) 10. Ma ldonado, P.: Strategic Design: A n Innovation and Design Process Flowchart. CIPED VI Congresso Internacional de Pesquisa em Design Livro de Resumos. CIPED VI Congresso Internacional de Pesquisa em De sign, pp. 292 -293. CIAUD, Lisboa (2011) 11. Maldonado, P.: Insp¾dia UXD: inspiring collaborati ve and interactive intelligence. Post doc final report. Lisbon School of Architecture, Universidade de Lisboa ( 2017)

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12. Maldonado, P. et al.: Insp¾dia Report: An Inspired Research Itinerary. In: Rebelo F. , Soares M. (eds.) Advances in Ergonomics in Design. AHFE 2017. LNCS, vol. 588, pp. 432 -442. Springer, Cham (2018) 13. Berkun, S.: Making Things H appe n: Mastering Project M anagement. OÕReilly, Sebastopol, CA (2008) 14. Wertheimer, M.: Productive T hinking . Enl. ed. Harper & Row, New York (1959[1945]). 15. Mari, E.: Progetto e passione (Design and Passion) . Bollati Boringhieri, Torino (2001) 16. Csi kszentmihalyi, M.: Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of D iscovery and Invention. HarperPerennial, New York (1 997) 17. Arnheim, R.: Visual T hinking. University of California Press, Berkley, CA (1984) 18. Thinkmap, Inc. , www.visualthesaurus.com 19. Kumar. V.: 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization. John Wiley and Sons, Hobokey, NJ (2013)

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