foods. Further Information. The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard. Reference is a more maintenance of good nutrition in healthy, normally active persons.

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iNutritive Valueof FoodsUnited StatesDepartment of AgricultureAgriculturalResearch ServiceHome andGarden Bulletin Number 72Susan E. Gebhardt and Robin G. ThomasU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural ResearchService, Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland

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iiAbstractGebhardt, Susan E., and Robin G. Thomas. 2002.Nutritive Value of Foods. U.S. Department ofAgriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Home and Garden Bulletin 72This publication gives in tabular form the nutritivevalues for household measures of commonly usedfoods. It was first published in 1960; the last revision was published in 1991. In this revision, values for total dietary fiber have been added and phosphorus values have been removed. Values arereported for water; calories; protein; total fat;saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; cholesterol; carbohydrate; total dietary fiber; calcium; iron; potassium; sodium; vitamin A in IU and RE units; thiamin; riboflavin; niacin; andascorbic acid (vitamin C). Data are from the U.S.Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13.Keywords: ascorbic acid, calcium, calories,cholesterol, dietary fiber, fatty acids, foods, iron,niacin, nutrient composition, nutrient data, potassium, protein, riboflavin, salt, sodium, total fat, vitamin AMention of trade names, commercial products, orcompanies in this publication is solely for thepurpose of providing specific information and doesnot imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture over others not mentioned..For sale by the Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800Fax: (202) 512-2250 Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis ofrace, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means forcommunication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDAÕs TARGET Centerat (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is anequal opportunity provider and employerRevised October 2002

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iiiContentsAcknowledgments..ivAbbreviationsvIntroduction1Further information1Literature cited.2Tables1Equivalents by volume and weight32Tips for estimating amount of food consume..43Yield of cooked meat per pound of raw meat as purchased.54Recommended daily dietary intakes.65Food sources of additional nutrients.86Daily values..97Amount of total fat that provides 30 percent of calories andsaturated fat that provides 10 percent..108Caffeine values119Nutritive value of the edible part of food..12Beverages..14Dairy products.16Eggs..22Fats and oils..22Fish and shellfish26Fruits and fruit juices..28Grain products.36Legumes, nuts, and seeds..52Meat and meat products.56Mixed dishes and fast foods.60Poultry and poultry products66Soups, sauces, and gravies68Sugars and sweets.70Vegetables and vegetable products..76Miscellaneous items.86Index for table 9..90

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ivAcknowledgmentsThe following people deserve special thanks fortheir roles in this project:Joanne M. Holden, research leader, Nutrient DataLaboratoryFood specialists of the Nutrient Data Laboratory,all of whom contributed data for the various food groups: Rena Cutrufelli, Vincent De Jesus, Jacob Exler, David Haytowitz, Gwen Holcomb, Juliette Howe, Linda Lemar, Pamela Pehrsson, andBethany ShowellDr. Mark Kantor, associate professor and extensionspecialist, University of Maryland, College Park; Lisa Lachenmayr, extension educator, MarylandCooperative ExtensionÑPrince GeorgeÕs County;and Kristin Marcoe, nutritionist, USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, each of whom reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful comments.

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2Literature CitedAmerican Institute for Cancer Research. 2001. TheNew American Plate. On the American Institute forCancer Research web site , page URL: (February 5, 2002).Schuster, Ellen, compiler. 1997. Making Sense ofPortion Sizes. On the Oregon State UniversityExtension Family & Community Development website , page URL: (February 5, 2002).Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation ofDietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 1997. DietaryReference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.__________. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes forThiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate,Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.__________. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes forVitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs,Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on LifeSciences, National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.U.S. Department of Agriculture, AgriculturalResearch Service. 2000. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13. The Service, Washington, D.CU.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th ed. USDA and DHHS, Home and Garden Bulletin 232.U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1999. FoodLabeling. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, part 101. [Available on the U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office web site , 21CFR101 URL: http:// 21cfr101_99.html> (February 5, 2002)].

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3Table 1. Equivalents by Volume and WeightThis table contains some helpful volume andweight equivalents. Following is an example thatillustrates how you can use the table:Example. For milk, the nutrient profile covers a1-cup serving (see page 20, table 9). LetÕs say youuse 2 tablespoons of milk in your coffee. In table 1,you see that 1 cup equals 16 tablespoons, so the 2 tablespoons you consume are two-sixteenths or one-eighth of 1 cup. To find out the nutritive value of the amount you actually consumeÑ2tablespoonsÑyou need to divide the nutrient valueslisted for milk by 8.Volume1 gallon (3.786 liters; 3,786 ml)4 quarts1 quart (0.946 liter; 946 ml)4 cups or 2 pints1 cup (237 ml)8 fluid ounces, Z\x pint, or16 tablespoons2 tablespoons (30 ml)1 fluid ounce1 tablespoon (15 ml)3 teaspoons1 pint2 cupsWeight1 pound (16 ounces)453.6 grams1 ounce28.35 grams3Z\x ounces100 grams

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4Table 2. Tips for Estimating Amount ofFood ConsumedThis table lists some handy tips to help youestimate the amount of food you eat when you cannot measure or weigh it.Breads and grainsZ\x cup cooked cereal, pasta, ricevolume of cupcake wrapper or half a baseball4-oz bagel (large)diameter of a compact disc (CD)medium piece of cornbreadmedium bar of soapFruits and vegetablesmedium apple, orange, peachtennis ballZ\v cup dried fruitgolf ball or scant handful for average adultZ\x cup fruit or vegetablehalf a baseball1 cup broccolilight bulbmedium potatocomputer mouse1 cup raw leafy greensbaseball or fist of average adultZ\x cup6 asparagus spears, 7 or 8 baby carrots orcarrot sticks, or a medium ear of cornMeat, fish, and poultry, cooked1 ozabout 3 tbsp meat or poultry2 ozsmall chicken drumstick or thigh3 ozaverage deck of cards, palm of averageadultÕs hand, half of a whole, small chicken breast, medium pork chopCheese1 oz hard cheeseaverage personÕs thumb, 2 dominoes, 4 diceOther2 tbsp peanut butterPing-Pong ballZ\c cup nutslevel handful for average adultZ\x cuphalf a baseball or base of computer mouse1 cuptennis ball or fist of average adultNote: The serving size indicated in the Food Guide Pyramid and on food labels is astandardized unit of measure and may not represent the portion of food a person actuallyeats on one occasion.Sources: Schuster (1997), American Institute of Cancer Research (2001).

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5Table 3. Yield of Cooked Meat per Pound ofRaw Meat as PurchasedFrom the time it is purchased to the time it is eaten,meat undergoes certain losses. These include evaporation of moisture and loss of fat in the drippings during cooking and removal of parts such as bone, gristle, and fat before or after cooking.This table shows, for several retail cuts, the yield ofcooked meat from 1 pound of raw meat. Yield is given as ounces of:Cooked meat with bone and fatCooked lean and fat Cooked lean onlyTable 3. Yield of Cooked Meat per Pound of Raw Meat as PurchasedYield after cooking, less drippingsRetail cut and method of cookingParts weighed Weight (oz)Chops or steaks for broiling or fryingWith bone and relatively large amount fat,Lean, bone, and fat10-12such as pork or lamb chops; beef rib;Lean and fat7-10sirloin, or porterhouse steaksLean only5-7Without bone and with very little fat, suchLean and fat12-13as round of beef or veal steaksLean only9-12Ground meat for broiling or frying, such asPatties9-13beef, lamb, or pork pattiesRoast for oven cooking (no liquid added)With bone and relatively large amount ofLean, bone, and fat10-12fat, such as beef rib, loin, chuck; lambLean and fat8-10shoulder, leg; pork, fresh or curedLean only6-9Without boneLean and fat10-12Lean only7-10Cuts for pot roasting, simmering, braising,stewingWith bone and relatively large amount ofLean, bone, and fat10-11fat, such as beef chuck, pork shoulderLean and fat8-9Lean only6-8Without bone and with relatively smallLean with adhering fat9-11amount of fat, such as trimmed beef, vealAmong the factors influencing meat yield is theproportion of fat and lean. Many cuts have anoutside layer of fat extending all or part wayaround. The thickness of this fat layer varies depending on the cutting and trimming practices in the market. The information on yield in table 3 and on nutritive value in table 9 applies to retail cutstrimmed according to typical market practices.Deposits of fat within a cut may be extensive. They are not usually affected by retail trimming but may be discarded after cooking.

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